Topical hexaminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of persistent human papilloma virus infections and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Peter Hillemanns, Mark H. Einstein, Ole Erik Iversen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Introduction: Current treatments for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) are mainly excisional procedures, which are associated with significant side effects and pose risks for future pregnancies. An effective and safe therapy is needed to reduce the requirement for surgical interventions in women of reproductive age. Areas covered: This review looks at the pharmacokinetic and clinical data for topical hexaminolevulinate (HAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is currently entering late phase clinical trials for high-grade CIN. The authors include published studies in patients and volunteers but laboratory and animal studies have been excluded as have studies on other porphyrins such as Photofrin, 5-aminolevulinic acid, methyl aminolevulinate and studies reporting other clinical applications for HAL. Expert opinion: Topical HAL PDT has potential as a non-surgical tissue-preserving treatment for CIN and persistent oncogenic human papilloma virus infections. HAL PDT selectively treats the entire epithelial sheet, without the tissue destruction seen in excisional procedures. The authors believe that this treatment could replace surgery in a large proportion of patients. It would be of particular value to the high percentage of women who are interested in future child-bearing. If the treatment is approved, it is very likely that physicians will want to use this treatment, as many patients will be keen to consider a non-surgical option.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-281
Number of pages9
JournalExpert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015



  • Cervical cancer
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Hexaminolevulinate
  • Human papilloma virus
  • Photodynamic therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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