Toll-like receptors in CNS viral infections

Hyeon Sook Suh, Celia F. Brosnan, Sunhee C. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Protection against viral infections is critically dependent upon the early production of significant levels of type 1 interferons and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes that function as the effectors of innate antiviral immunity. Activation of Toll-like receptors on cells of the immune system is known to play an important role in this process. In this chapter we review evidence for a role of TLRs in innate immune responses against viral infections of the central nervous system. By far the most extensive literature pertains to TLR3. Data from various laboratories have shown that TLR3 is expressed in cells endogenous to the CNS, particularly in astrocytes and microglia. Triggering TLR3 by synthetic dsRNA, poly I:C effectively induces innate antiviral responses as well as boosts adaptive immune responses. Additional experiments show cooperative responses between TLRs (3, 7/8 and 9) in mounting an effective antiviral immune response in the periphery. Perhaps the most exciting data are from patient populations that document the critical role that specific TLRs play in specific CNS infections. Studies also suggest that inappropriate activation of the TLRs can result in a pathogenic outcome rather than a protective one. Since TLR ligands are being actively considered for their antiviral and potential adjuvant effects, this will be an important issue to address in the context of the CNS environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-81
Number of pages19
JournalCurrent Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Volume336
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
Toll-Like Receptors
Antiviral Agents
Innate Immunity
Poly I-C
Interferon Type I
Microglia
Adaptive Immunity
Virus Diseases
Astrocytes
Interferons
Immune System
Ligands
Infection
Population
Genes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Toll-like receptors in CNS viral infections. / Suh, Hyeon Sook; Brosnan, Celia F.; Lee, Sunhee C.

In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 336, No. 1, 2009, p. 63-81.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Suh, Hyeon Sook ; Brosnan, Celia F. ; Lee, Sunhee C. / Toll-like receptors in CNS viral infections. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 2009 ; Vol. 336, No. 1. pp. 63-81.
@article{cf52baa0564d4e1b9cfa7f5e7d947fc5,
title = "Toll-like receptors in CNS viral infections",
abstract = "Protection against viral infections is critically dependent upon the early production of significant levels of type 1 interferons and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes that function as the effectors of innate antiviral immunity. Activation of Toll-like receptors on cells of the immune system is known to play an important role in this process. In this chapter we review evidence for a role of TLRs in innate immune responses against viral infections of the central nervous system. By far the most extensive literature pertains to TLR3. Data from various laboratories have shown that TLR3 is expressed in cells endogenous to the CNS, particularly in astrocytes and microglia. Triggering TLR3 by synthetic dsRNA, poly I:C effectively induces innate antiviral responses as well as boosts adaptive immune responses. Additional experiments show cooperative responses between TLRs (3, 7/8 and 9) in mounting an effective antiviral immune response in the periphery. Perhaps the most exciting data are from patient populations that document the critical role that specific TLRs play in specific CNS infections. Studies also suggest that inappropriate activation of the TLRs can result in a pathogenic outcome rather than a protective one. Since TLR ligands are being actively considered for their antiviral and potential adjuvant effects, this will be an important issue to address in the context of the CNS environment.",
author = "Suh, {Hyeon Sook} and Brosnan, {Celia F.} and Lee, {Sunhee C.}",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-642-00549-7-4",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "336",
pages = "63--81",
journal = "Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology",
issn = "0070-217X",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Toll-like receptors in CNS viral infections

AU - Suh, Hyeon Sook

AU - Brosnan, Celia F.

AU - Lee, Sunhee C.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - Protection against viral infections is critically dependent upon the early production of significant levels of type 1 interferons and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes that function as the effectors of innate antiviral immunity. Activation of Toll-like receptors on cells of the immune system is known to play an important role in this process. In this chapter we review evidence for a role of TLRs in innate immune responses against viral infections of the central nervous system. By far the most extensive literature pertains to TLR3. Data from various laboratories have shown that TLR3 is expressed in cells endogenous to the CNS, particularly in astrocytes and microglia. Triggering TLR3 by synthetic dsRNA, poly I:C effectively induces innate antiviral responses as well as boosts adaptive immune responses. Additional experiments show cooperative responses between TLRs (3, 7/8 and 9) in mounting an effective antiviral immune response in the periphery. Perhaps the most exciting data are from patient populations that document the critical role that specific TLRs play in specific CNS infections. Studies also suggest that inappropriate activation of the TLRs can result in a pathogenic outcome rather than a protective one. Since TLR ligands are being actively considered for their antiviral and potential adjuvant effects, this will be an important issue to address in the context of the CNS environment.

AB - Protection against viral infections is critically dependent upon the early production of significant levels of type 1 interferons and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes that function as the effectors of innate antiviral immunity. Activation of Toll-like receptors on cells of the immune system is known to play an important role in this process. In this chapter we review evidence for a role of TLRs in innate immune responses against viral infections of the central nervous system. By far the most extensive literature pertains to TLR3. Data from various laboratories have shown that TLR3 is expressed in cells endogenous to the CNS, particularly in astrocytes and microglia. Triggering TLR3 by synthetic dsRNA, poly I:C effectively induces innate antiviral responses as well as boosts adaptive immune responses. Additional experiments show cooperative responses between TLRs (3, 7/8 and 9) in mounting an effective antiviral immune response in the periphery. Perhaps the most exciting data are from patient populations that document the critical role that specific TLRs play in specific CNS infections. Studies also suggest that inappropriate activation of the TLRs can result in a pathogenic outcome rather than a protective one. Since TLR ligands are being actively considered for their antiviral and potential adjuvant effects, this will be an important issue to address in the context of the CNS environment.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77649231746&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77649231746&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-642-00549-7-4

DO - 10.1007/978-3-642-00549-7-4

M3 - Article

C2 - 19688328

AN - SCOPUS:77649231746

VL - 336

SP - 63

EP - 81

JO - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

JF - Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

SN - 0070-217X

IS - 1

ER -