Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the presence of multiple foci in the skeleton. These distinct tumor foci represent cycles of tumor growth and dissemination that seed new clusters and drive disease progression. By using an intratibial Vk*MYC murine myeloma model, we found that CD1691 radiation-resistant tissue-resident macrophages (MPs) were critical for early dissemination of myeloma and disease progression. Depletion of these MPs had no effect on tumor proliferation, but it did reduce egress of myeloma from bone marrow (BM) and its spread to other bones. Depletion of MPs as a single therapy and in combination with BM transplantation improved overall survival. Dissemination of myeloma was correlated with an increased inflammatory signature in BM MPs. It was also correlated with the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) by tumor-associated MPs. Exogenous intravenous IL-6 and TNFa can trigger myeloma intravasation in the BM by increasing vascular permeability in the BM and by enhancing the motility of myeloma cells by reducing the adhesion of CD138. Moreover, mice that lacked IL-6 had defects in disseminating myeloma similar to those in MP-depleted recipients. Mice that were deficient in TNFa or TNFa receptor (TNFR) had defects in disseminating MM, and engraftment was also impaired. These effects on dissemination of myeloma required production of cytokines in the radiation-resistant compartment that contained these radiation-resistant BM MPs. Taken together, we propose that egress of myeloma cells from BM is regulated by localized inflammation in foci, driven in part by CD1691 MPs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas