Termination of prostaglandin (PG) signaling has been proposed to involve carrier-mediated uptake across the plasma membrane followed by cytoplasmic oxidation. Here, we tested this hypothesis directly by coexpressing the PG uptake carrier prostaglandin transporter (PGT) in various cell types with and without human PG 15 dehydrogenase (PG15DH). In HeLa cells, which express neither PGT nor PG15DH, exogenously added PGE2 or PGF2α were rapidly oxidized to the 13,14-dihydro, 15-keto metabolites only when PGT and PG15DH were coexpressed, directly confirming the two-step hypothesis. Cells expressing PG15DH that were broken open formed more PG metabolites than cells in which the PGs could gain access to PG15DH only via PGT. Similar results were obtained using the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, in which endogenous PG15DH is induced after exposure to dihydrotestosterone. Because PGT in vivo is expressed in renal collecting duct epithelia, we also expressed PGT in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells grown on filters, where it mediated both the active uptake of PGE2 across the apical membrane and the transepithelial transport of PGE2 to the basolateral compartment. When PG15DH was coexpressed with PGT in these epithelial monolayers, about half of the PGE2 taken up apically was oxidized to 13,14-dihydro, 15-keto-PGE2, which in turn exited the cells nondirectionally into both the apical and basolateral compartments. Our data represent reconstitution of the longstanding model of PG metabolism consisting of sequential carrier-mediated PG uptake, cytoplasmic oxidation, and diffusional efflux of the PG metabolite.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine