The chapter initially discusses normal spinal development and variants. Pathology is addressed first in terms of general structural vertebral anomalies. These are then applied to congenital scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis, as well as anomalies involving the craniovertebral junction. Discussion of spinal dysraphism follows, including tethered filum terminale, hydrosyringomyelia, and diastematomyelia. Congenital intraspinal tumors are briefly reviewed. Klippel-Feil syndrome and caudal regression are presented, as well as spine manifestations of neurofibromatosis and several other syndromes. Idiopathic scoliosis is discussed in detail, including curve measurement, imaging techniques, and treatment options. Neuromuscular scoliosis is briefly reviewed. The chapter concludes with juvenile kyphosis.
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