IMPORTANCE: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) in children describes neuropsychiatric symptom exacerbations that relate temporally to streptococcal infections. Recent case reports suggest tonsillectomymay effectively reduce these symptoms; however, no consensus treatment guidelines exist. This study examines whether tonsillectomy improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in children with PANDAS who have incomplete response to antibiotic therapy. OBSERVATIONS: Ten patients met strict diagnostic criteria for PANDAS. Comparisons were made between parental reports of symptom severity at diagnosis, after antibiotic treatment (in 10 patients), and after tonsillectomy (in 9). From a baseline severity score of 10, antibiotics alone improved symptoms to a median (interquartile range [IQR]) score of 8 (6.5-10.0) (P = .03). Nine children who subsequently underwent tonsillectomy reported symptom improvement in comparison with treatment with antibiotics alone, including those with no response to antibiotics. Symptom severity improved at all periods after tonsillectomy compared with antibiotics alone. The median score [IQR] 3 months postoperatively was 3 (0.0-6.5) (P = .01); 6 months postoperatively, 3 (0.0-5.0) (P = .02); 1 year postoperatively, 3 (0.0-5.0) (P = .02); and 3 years postoperatively, 0.5 (0.0-2.3) (P = .03). Four of the 9 had complete resolution after tonsillectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This PANDAS cohort whose neuropsychiatric symptoms did not respond sufficiently to antibioticsmay have gained benefit from tonsillectomy.
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