Postprandial hyperglycemia and preprandial hypoglycemia contribute to poor glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that postprandial glycemic excursions could be normalized in type 1 diabetes by suppressing glucagon with pramlintide acetate in the immediate postprandial period and supplementing glucagon in the late postprandial period. A total of 11 control subjects were compared with 8 type 1 diabetic subjects on insulin pump therapy, using the usual insulin bolus-to-carbohydrate ratio during a standard liquid meal. Type 1 diabetic subjects were then randomized to two open-labeled studies. On one occasion, type 1 diabetic subjects received a 60% increase in the insulin bolus-to-carbohydrate ratio with minidose glucagon rescue injections, and on the other occasion type 1 diabetic subjects received 30-45 μg pramlintide with their usual insulin bolus-to-carbohydrate ratio. Glucose, glucagon, amylin (pramlintide), and insulin concentrations were measured for 420 min. The plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC) for 0-420 min was lower in control versus type 1 diabetic subjects (316 ± 5 vs. 929 ± 18 mg · h -1 · dl-1, P < 0.0001). Pramlintide, but not an increase in insulin, reduced immediate postprandial hyperglycemia (AUC 0-180 min 470 ± 43 vs. 434 ± 48 mg · h -1 · dl-1, P < 0.01). Pramlintide administration suppressed glucagon (P < 0.02), and glucagon injections prevented late hypoglycemia with increased insulin. In summary, in type 1 diabetes, glucagon modulation with pramlintide as an adjunct to insulin therapy may prove beneficial in controlling postmeal glycemic swings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism