The Na+/I- Symporter (NIS): Imaging and Therapeutic Applications

Ekaterina Dadachova, Nancy Carrasco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Na+/I- symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates the active uptake of I- in the thyroid, ie, the crucial first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis. NIS also mediates I- uptake in other tissues, such as salivary glands, gastric mucosa, and lactating (but not nonlactating) mammary gland. The ability of thyroid cancer cells to actively transport I- via NIS provides a unique and effective delivery system to detect and target these cells for destruction with therapeutic doses of radioiodide. Breast cancer is the only malignancy other than thyroid cancer to have been shown to functionally express NIS endogenously. The considerable potential diagnostic and therapeutic use of radioiodide in breast cancer is currently being assessed. On the other hand, exogenous NIS gene transfer has successfully been carried out into a variety of other cell lines and tumors, including A375 human melanoma tumors, and SiHa cervix cancer, human glioma, and hepatoma cell lines. Most notably, significant radioiodine therapy results have been obtained in the NIS-transfected human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP and in NIS-transfected myeloma cells, both of which exhibited prolonged retention of radioiodide even in the absence of I - organification. The therapeutic potential of alternative NIS-transported radioisotopes with different decay properties and a shorter, physical half-life than 131I-, such as β-emitter 188Rhenium (188ReO4 -) and α-emitter 211Astatine (211At-), has been evaluated. In conclusion, it is clear that the remarkable progress made in the last few years in the molecular characterization of NIS has created new opportunities for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications for NIS in nuclear medicine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-31
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Nuclear Medicine
Volume34
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2004

Fingerprint

Symporters
Therapeutics
Thyroid Neoplasms
Breast Neoplasms
Cell Line
Nuclear Medicine
Membrane Glycoproteins
Therapeutic Uses
Human Mammary Glands
Gastric Mucosa
Salivary Glands
Tumor Cell Line
Thyroid Hormones
Glioma
Radioisotopes
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
Half-Life
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Melanoma
Neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

Cite this

The Na+/I- Symporter (NIS) : Imaging and Therapeutic Applications. / Dadachova, Ekaterina; Carrasco, Nancy.

In: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 1, 01.2004, p. 23-31.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dadachova, Ekaterina ; Carrasco, Nancy. / The Na+/I- Symporter (NIS) : Imaging and Therapeutic Applications. In: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine. 2004 ; Vol. 34, No. 1. pp. 23-31.
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