The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

W. Andiman, M. Boucher, D. Burns, Y. Bryson, J. Farley, M. Fowler, C. Gabiano, L. Galli, C. Hutto, C. Kind, B. Korber, A. Kovacs, P. Krogstad, S. Landesman, N. Lapointe, M. Lemay, J. Lew, L. Mandelbrot, M. J. Mayaux, R. MellinsH. Minkoff, L. Mofenson, K. Nielsen, M. L. Newell, G. Pardi, H. Peavy, C. Peckham, J. Read, C. Rother, C. Rudin, G. Scott, A. Semprini, W. Shearer, R. Simonds, B. Simpson, A. Stek, P. A. Tovo, R. Tuomala, R. Van Dyke, J. Weedon, M. de Martino, D. Harris, M. Lindsay, S. Belair, L. Chan, L. Kalish, L. Muenz, R. Nugent, M. Schluchter, S. Durako, S. Goodwin, R. Mitchell, P. Nourjah, W. Owen, S. Widmayer, A. Bardeguez, C. Hanson, A. Wiznia, K. Luzuriaga, R. Viscarello, D. Ho, R. Koup, I. Chen, J. Mullins, S. Wolinsky, B. Walker, A. Ammann, S. Clapp, D. McDonald, M. Fauvel, C. Hankins, J. Samson, A. Bailey, C. Giaquinto, E. Ruga, A. De Rossi, D. Truscia, I. Grosch-Wörner, A. Schäfer, J. Mok, F. Johnstone, J. Jiminez, C. de Alba, M. Garcia-Rodriguez, I. Bates, I. de José, F. Hawkins, R. Martinez Zapico, F. Asensi-Botet, M. Otero, D. Pérez-Tamarit, A. Moya, M. Galbis, H. Scherpbier, K. Boer, A. Bohlin, S. Lindgren, A. Ehrnst, B. Anzén, E. Belfrage, J. Levy, A. Alimenti, P. Barlow, A. Ferrazin, A. De Maria, C. Gotta, V. Maritati, A. Mûr, M. Rovira, A. Paya, O. Coll, C. Fortuny, J. Boguña, M. Casellas Caro, Y. Canet, M. Ravizza, C. Castagna, S. Fiore, B. Guerra, M. Lanari, S. Bianchi, L. Bovicelli, E. Prati, S. Zanelli, M. Duse, A. Soresina, G. Scaravelli, M. Stegagno, M. De Santis, M. Muggiasca, A. Viganó, P. Marchisio, A. Iasci, A. Spinillo, A. Bucceri, E. Grossi, L. Rancilio, M. Della Torre, F. Parazzini, P. Dallacasa, U. Bianchi, A. Pachì, S. Mancuso, P. Villa, M. Conti, N. Principi, C. Zara, F. Ravagni, M. Vignali, G. Rossi, L. Selvaggi, P. Greco, A. Vimercati, G. Massi, T. Innocenti, A. Fiscella, P. Martinelli, M. Sansone, C. Benedetto, C. Tibaldi, N. Ziarati, B. Tadrist, D. Thevenieau, J. Gondry, B. Paulard, C. Alisy, D. Brault, N. Tordjeman, J. Mamou, M. Rozan, D. Colombani, O. Pincemaille, A. Salvetti, C. Chabanier, X. Hernandorena, J. Leroy, J. Schaal, P. Balde, P. Faucher, E. Lachassinne, S. Benoit, D. Douard, C. Hocke, P. Barjot, J. Brouard, P. Delattre, L. Stien, F. Audibert, P. Labrune, M. Vial, F. Mazy, D. Sitbon, C. Crenn-Hebert, C. Floch-Tudal, R. Akakpo, C. Daveau, A. Leblanc, P. Cesbron, M. Duval-Arnould, C. Huraux-Rendu, S. Lemerle, C. Touboul, M. Guerin, C. Maingueneau, I. Reynaud, T. Rousseau, V. Ercoil, M. Lanza, M. Denavit, J. Garnier, K. Lahsinat, P. Pia, C. Allouche, M. Nardou, F. Grall, A. May, M. Dallot, P. Lhuillier, W. Cecile, R. Mezin, A. Bech, J. Lobut, G. Algava, A. Chalvon Dermesay, R. Busuttil, M. Jacquemot, B. Bader-Meunier, S. Fridman, X. Codaccioni, F. Maxingue, D. Thomas, J. Alain, L. De Lumley, J. Tabaste, P. Bailly Salin, H. Seaume, A. Guichard, K. Kebaïll, C. Roussouly, C. Botto, A. De Lanete, P. Wipff, L. Cravello, P. De Boisse, M. Leclaire, G. Michel, C. Crumiere, V. Lefevre, B. Le Lorier, I. Pauly, B. Robichez, D. Seguy, M. Delhinger, F. Rideau, P. Talon, P. Benos, C. Huret, J. Nicolas, B. Heller-Roussin, S. Saint-Leger, M. Delaporte, C. Hubert, B. De Sarcus, P. Karoubi, F. Mechinaud, D. Bertcrottiere, A. Bongain, F. Monpoux, C. De Gennes, F. Devianne, I. Nisand, M. Rousset, G. Mouchnino, J. Muray, M. Munzer, C. Quereux, V. Brossard, B. Clavier, M. Allemon, D. Rotten, J. Stephan, M. Varlet, B. Guyot, P. Narcy, F. Bardinet, F. De Caunes, R. Jeny, M. Robin, A. Raison Boulley, L. Savey, A. Berrebi, J. Tricoire, J. Borderon, A. Fignon, F. Guillot, B. Maria, A. Broyard, Y. Chitrit, G. Firtion, M. Lafay Pillet, S. Parat, C. Boissinot, N. Garec, M. Levine, A. Ottenwalter, F. Schaller, E. Vilmer, C. Courpotin, C. Brunner, N. Ciraru-Vigneron, G. Hatem-Gantzer, X. Fritel, A. Wallet, J. Bouille, J. Milliez, D. Bensaid Mrejen, E. Dermer, G. Noseda, D. Bardou, J. Cressaty, C. Francoual, C. Carlus Moncomble, H. Cohen, S. Blanche, H. Bastion, J. Benifla, F. Benkhatar, N. Berkane, F. Hervé, M. Ronzier, G. Ferraris, S. Tulisso, C. Scolfaro, C. Riva, A. Vierucci, M. de Luca, S. Farina, C. Fundarò, O. Genovese, G. Mereu, G. Forni, P. Falconieri, G. Zuccotti, E. Riva, M. Cellini, C. Baraldi, R. Consolini, G. Palla, M. Ruggeri, C. Pignata, A. Guarino, P. Osimani, A. Metri, A. Antonellini, G. Benaglia, A. Romano, D. De Mattia, D. Caselli, S. Boni, G. Dell'Erba, F. Bassanetti, M. Sticca, C. Timpano, C. Magnani, C. Salvatore, G. Gambaretto, R. Lipreri, R. Tornaghi, R. Pinzani, M. Cecchi, T. Bezzi, L. Battisti, E. Bresciani, G. Gattinara, R. Berrino, A. Pellegatta, A. Mazza, F. Baldi, E. Micheletti, R. Altobelli, M. Deiana, C. Colnaghi, L. Tarallo, U. Tondo, E. Anastasio, P. Chiriacò, I. Contardi, C. Ruggeri, P. Ibba, M. O'Sullivan, A. Malmsberry, A. Willoughby, J. Goedert, H. Mendez, S. Holman, A. Rubinstein, S. Nesheim, S. Clark, F. Lee, A. Nahmias, M. Sawyer, P. Vink, L. Alger, E. Abrams, M. Bamji, G. Lambert, E. Schoenbaum, D. Thea, P. Thomas, P. Palumbo, T. Denny, J. Oleske, S. Orloff, J. Ethier-Ives, M. Rogers, M. Kutner, S. Kaplan, M. Kattan, S. Lipshultz, G. Sopko, E. Sloand, M. Wu, D. Nadal, C. A. Siegrist, C. A. Wyler, J. J. Cheseaux, C. Aebi, H. Gnehm, G. Schubiger, J. Klingler, U. Hunziker, H. Kuchler, M. Gianinazzi, U. Buhlmann, K. Biedermann, U. Lauper, O. Irion, A. Brunelli, G. Spoletini, A. Schreyer, I. Hosli, E. Saurenmann, G. Drack, M. Isenschmid, M. Poorbeik, J. Schupbach, L. Perrin, P. Erb, H. Joller, M. Dillon, P. Boyer, D. Liao, M. Keller, A. Deveikis, M. Khoury, C. Diaz, E. Pacheco-Acosta, E. Cooper, D. Mesthene, J. Pitt, A. Higgins, G. Moroso, K. Rich, D. Turpin, N. Cooper, V. Smeriglio, S. McKinlay, S. Ellis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

630 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. Methods: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. Results: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)977-987
Number of pages11
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume340
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 1999
Externally publishedYes

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Meta-Analysis
HIV-1
Cesarean Section
Cohort Studies
Mothers
Prospective Studies
Rupture
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Labor Onset
Therapeutics
Membranes
Zidovudine
Birth Weight
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 : A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. / Andiman, W.; Boucher, M.; Burns, D.; Bryson, Y.; Farley, J.; Fowler, M.; Gabiano, C.; Galli, L.; Hutto, C.; Kind, C.; Korber, B.; Kovacs, A.; Krogstad, P.; Landesman, S.; Lapointe, N.; Lemay, M.; Lew, J.; Mandelbrot, L.; Mayaux, M. J.; Mellins, R.; Minkoff, H.; Mofenson, L.; Nielsen, K.; Newell, M. L.; Pardi, G.; Peavy, H.; Peckham, C.; Read, J.; Rother, C.; Rudin, C.; Scott, G.; Semprini, A.; Shearer, W.; Simonds, R.; Simpson, B.; Stek, A.; Tovo, P. A.; Tuomala, R.; Van Dyke, R.; Weedon, J.; de Martino, M.; Harris, D.; Lindsay, M.; Belair, S.; Chan, L.; Kalish, L.; Muenz, L.; Nugent, R.; Schluchter, M.; Durako, S.; Goodwin, S.; Mitchell, R.; Nourjah, P.; Owen, W.; Widmayer, S.; Bardeguez, A.; Hanson, C.; Wiznia, A.; Luzuriaga, K.; Viscarello, R.; Ho, D.; Koup, R.; Chen, I.; Mullins, J.; Wolinsky, S.; Walker, B.; Ammann, A.; Clapp, S.; McDonald, D.; Fauvel, M.; Hankins, C.; Samson, J.; Bailey, A.; Giaquinto, C.; Ruga, E.; De Rossi, A.; Truscia, D.; Grosch-Wörner, I.; Schäfer, A.; Mok, J.; Johnstone, F.; Jiminez, J.; de Alba, C.; Garcia-Rodriguez, M.; Bates, I.; de José, I.; Hawkins, F.; Martinez Zapico, R.; Asensi-Botet, F.; Otero, M.; Pérez-Tamarit, D.; Moya, A.; Galbis, M.; Scherpbier, H.; Boer, K.; Bohlin, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ehrnst, A.; Anzén, B.; Belfrage, E.; Levy, J.; Alimenti, A.; Barlow, P.; Ferrazin, A.; De Maria, A.; Gotta, C.; Maritati, V.; Mûr, A.; Rovira, M.; Paya, A.; Coll, O.; Fortuny, C.; Boguña, J.; Casellas Caro, M.; Canet, Y.; Ravizza, M.; Castagna, C.; Fiore, S.; Guerra, B.; Lanari, M.; Bianchi, S.; Bovicelli, L.; Prati, E.; Zanelli, S.; Duse, M.; Soresina, A.; Scaravelli, G.; Stegagno, M.; De Santis, M.; Muggiasca, M.; Viganó, A.; Marchisio, P.; Iasci, A.; Spinillo, A.; Bucceri, A.; Grossi, E.; Rancilio, L.; Della Torre, M.; Parazzini, F.; Dallacasa, P.; Bianchi, U.; Pachì, A.; Mancuso, S.; Villa, P.; Conti, M.; Principi, N.; Zara, C.; Ravagni, F.; Vignali, M.; Rossi, G.; Selvaggi, L.; Greco, P.; Vimercati, A.; Massi, G.; Innocenti, T.; Fiscella, A.; Martinelli, P.; Sansone, M.; Benedetto, C.; Tibaldi, C.; Ziarati, N.; Tadrist, B.; Thevenieau, D.; Gondry, J.; Paulard, B.; Alisy, C.; Brault, D.; Tordjeman, N.; Mamou, J.; Rozan, M.; Colombani, D.; Pincemaille, O.; Salvetti, A.; Chabanier, C.; Hernandorena, X.; Leroy, J.; Schaal, J.; Balde, P.; Faucher, P.; Lachassinne, E.; Benoit, S.; Douard, D.; Hocke, C.; Barjot, P.; Brouard, J.; Delattre, P.; Stien, L.; Audibert, F.; Labrune, P.; Vial, M.; Mazy, F.; Sitbon, D.; Crenn-Hebert, C.; Floch-Tudal, C.; Akakpo, R.; Daveau, C.; Leblanc, A.; Cesbron, P.; Duval-Arnould, M.; Huraux-Rendu, C.; Lemerle, S.; Touboul, C.; Guerin, M.; Maingueneau, C.; Reynaud, I.; Rousseau, T.; Ercoil, V.; Lanza, M.; Denavit, M.; Garnier, J.; Lahsinat, K.; Pia, P.; Allouche, C.; Nardou, M.; Grall, F.; May, A.; Dallot, M.; Lhuillier, P.; Cecile, W.; Mezin, R.; Bech, A.; Lobut, J.; Algava, G.; Chalvon Dermesay, A.; Busuttil, R.; Jacquemot, M.; Bader-Meunier, B.; Fridman, S.; Codaccioni, X.; Maxingue, F.; Thomas, D.; Alain, J.; De Lumley, L.; Tabaste, J.; Bailly Salin, P.; Seaume, H.; Guichard, A.; Kebaïll, K.; Roussouly, C.; Botto, C.; De Lanete, A.; Wipff, P.; Cravello, L.; De Boisse, P.; Leclaire, M.; Michel, G.; Crumiere, C.; Lefevre, V.; Le Lorier, B.; Pauly, I.; Robichez, B.; Seguy, D.; Delhinger, M.; Rideau, F.; Talon, P.; Benos, P.; Huret, C.; Nicolas, J.; Heller-Roussin, B.; Saint-Leger, S.; Delaporte, M.; Hubert, C.; De Sarcus, B.; Karoubi, P.; Mechinaud, F.; Bertcrottiere, D.; Bongain, A.; Monpoux, F.; De Gennes, C.; Devianne, F.; Nisand, I.; Rousset, M.; Mouchnino, G.; Muray, J.; Munzer, M.; Quereux, C.; Brossard, V.; Clavier, B.; Allemon, M.; Rotten, D.; Stephan, J.; Varlet, M.; Guyot, B.; Narcy, P.; Bardinet, F.; De Caunes, F.; Jeny, R.; Robin, M.; Raison Boulley, A.; Savey, L.; Berrebi, A.; Tricoire, J.; Borderon, J.; Fignon, A.; Guillot, F.; Maria, B.; Broyard, A.; Chitrit, Y.; Firtion, G.; Lafay Pillet, M.; Parat, S.; Boissinot, C.; Garec, N.; Levine, M.; Ottenwalter, A.; Schaller, F.; Vilmer, E.; Courpotin, C.; Brunner, C.; Ciraru-Vigneron, N.; Hatem-Gantzer, G.; Fritel, X.; Wallet, A.; Bouille, J.; Milliez, J.; Bensaid Mrejen, D.; Dermer, E.; Noseda, G.; Bardou, D.; Cressaty, J.; Francoual, C.; Carlus Moncomble, C.; Cohen, H.; Blanche, S.; Bastion, H.; Benifla, J.; Benkhatar, F.; Berkane, N.; Hervé, F.; Ronzier, M.; Ferraris, G.; Tulisso, S.; Scolfaro, C.; Riva, C.; Vierucci, A.; de Luca, M.; Farina, S.; Fundarò, C.; Genovese, O.; Mereu, G.; Forni, G.; Falconieri, P.; Zuccotti, G.; Riva, E.; Cellini, M.; Baraldi, C.; Consolini, R.; Palla, G.; Ruggeri, M.; Pignata, C.; Guarino, A.; Osimani, P.; Metri, A.; Antonellini, A.; Benaglia, G.; Romano, A.; De Mattia, D.; Caselli, D.; Boni, S.; Dell'Erba, G.; Bassanetti, F.; Sticca, M.; Timpano, C.; Magnani, C.; Salvatore, C.; Gambaretto, G.; Lipreri, R.; Tornaghi, R.; Pinzani, R.; Cecchi, M.; Bezzi, T.; Battisti, L.; Bresciani, E.; Gattinara, G.; Berrino, R.; Pellegatta, A.; Mazza, A.; Baldi, F.; Micheletti, E.; Altobelli, R.; Deiana, M.; Colnaghi, C.; Tarallo, L.; Tondo, U.; Anastasio, E.; Chiriacò, P.; Contardi, I.; Ruggeri, C.; Ibba, P.; O'Sullivan, M.; Malmsberry, A.; Willoughby, A.; Goedert, J.; Mendez, H.; Holman, S.; Rubinstein, A.; Nesheim, S.; Clark, S.; Lee, F.; Nahmias, A.; Sawyer, M.; Vink, P.; Alger, L.; Abrams, E.; Bamji, M.; Lambert, G.; Schoenbaum, E.; Thea, D.; Thomas, P.; Palumbo, P.; Denny, T.; Oleske, J.; Orloff, S.; Ethier-Ives, J.; Rogers, M.; Kutner, M.; Kaplan, S.; Kattan, M.; Lipshultz, S.; Sopko, G.; Sloand, E.; Wu, M.; Nadal, D.; Siegrist, C. A.; Wyler, C. A.; Cheseaux, J. J.; Aebi, C.; Gnehm, H.; Schubiger, G.; Klingler, J.; Hunziker, U.; Kuchler, H.; Gianinazzi, M.; Buhlmann, U.; Biedermann, K.; Lauper, U.; Irion, O.; Brunelli, A.; Spoletini, G.; Schreyer, A.; Hosli, I.; Saurenmann, E.; Drack, G.; Isenschmid, M.; Poorbeik, M.; Schupbach, J.; Perrin, L.; Erb, P.; Joller, H.; Dillon, M.; Boyer, P.; Liao, D.; Keller, M.; Deveikis, A.; Khoury, M.; Diaz, C.; Pacheco-Acosta, E.; Cooper, E.; Mesthene, D.; Pitt, J.; Higgins, A.; Moroso, G.; Rich, K.; Turpin, D.; Cooper, N.; Smeriglio, V.; McKinlay, S.; Ellis, S.

In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 340, No. 13, 01.04.1999, p. 977-987.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Andiman, W, Boucher, M, Burns, D, Bryson, Y, Farley, J, Fowler, M, Gabiano, C, Galli, L, Hutto, C, Kind, C, Korber, B, Kovacs, A, Krogstad, P, Landesman, S, Lapointe, N, Lemay, M, Lew, J, Mandelbrot, L, Mayaux, MJ, Mellins, R, Minkoff, H, Mofenson, L, Nielsen, K, Newell, ML, Pardi, G, Peavy, H, Peckham, C, Read, J, Rother, C, Rudin, C, Scott, G, Semprini, A, Shearer, W, Simonds, R, Simpson, B, Stek, A, Tovo, PA, Tuomala, R, Van Dyke, R, Weedon, J, de Martino, M, Harris, D, Lindsay, M, Belair, S, Chan, L, Kalish, L, Muenz, L, Nugent, R, Schluchter, M, Durako, S, Goodwin, S, Mitchell, R, Nourjah, P, Owen, W, Widmayer, S, Bardeguez, A, Hanson, C, Wiznia, A, Luzuriaga, K, Viscarello, R, Ho, D, Koup, R, Chen, I, Mullins, J, Wolinsky, S, Walker, B, Ammann, A, Clapp, S, McDonald, D, Fauvel, M, Hankins, C, Samson, J, Bailey, A, Giaquinto, C, Ruga, E, De Rossi, A, Truscia, D, Grosch-Wörner, I, Schäfer, A, Mok, J, Johnstone, F, Jiminez, J, de Alba, C, Garcia-Rodriguez, M, Bates, I, de José, I, Hawkins, F, Martinez Zapico, R, Asensi-Botet, F, Otero, M, Pérez-Tamarit, D, Moya, A, Galbis, M, Scherpbier, H, Boer, K, Bohlin, A, Lindgren, S, Ehrnst, A, Anzén, B, Belfrage, E, Levy, J, Alimenti, A, Barlow, P, Ferrazin, A, De Maria, A, Gotta, C, Maritati, V, Mûr, A, Rovira, M, Paya, A, Coll, O, Fortuny, C, Boguña, J, Casellas Caro, M, Canet, Y, Ravizza, M, Castagna, C, Fiore, S, Guerra, B, Lanari, M, Bianchi, S, Bovicelli, L, Prati, E, Zanelli, S, Duse, M, Soresina, A, Scaravelli, G, Stegagno, M, De Santis, M, Muggiasca, M, Viganó, A, Marchisio, P, Iasci, A, Spinillo, A, Bucceri, A, Grossi, E, Rancilio, L, Della Torre, M, Parazzini, F, Dallacasa, P, Bianchi, U, Pachì, A, Mancuso, S, Villa, P, Conti, M, Principi, N, Zara, C, Ravagni, F, Vignali, M, Rossi, G, Selvaggi, L, Greco, P, Vimercati, A, Massi, G, Innocenti, T, Fiscella, A, Martinelli, P, Sansone, M, Benedetto, C, Tibaldi, C, Ziarati, N, Tadrist, B, Thevenieau, D, Gondry, J, Paulard, B, Alisy, C, Brault, D, Tordjeman, N, Mamou, J, Rozan, M, Colombani, D, Pincemaille, O, Salvetti, A, Chabanier, C, Hernandorena, X, Leroy, J, Schaal, J, Balde, P, Faucher, P, Lachassinne, E, Benoit, S, Douard, D, Hocke, C, Barjot, P, Brouard, J, Delattre, P, Stien, L, Audibert, F, Labrune, P, Vial, M, Mazy, F, Sitbon, D, Crenn-Hebert, C, Floch-Tudal, C, Akakpo, R, Daveau, C, Leblanc, A, Cesbron, P, Duval-Arnould, M, Huraux-Rendu, C, Lemerle, S, Touboul, C, Guerin, M, Maingueneau, C, Reynaud, I, Rousseau, T, Ercoil, V, Lanza, M, Denavit, M, Garnier, J, Lahsinat, K, Pia, P, Allouche, C, Nardou, M, Grall, F, May, A, Dallot, M, Lhuillier, P, Cecile, W, Mezin, R, Bech, A, Lobut, J, Algava, G, Chalvon Dermesay, A, Busuttil, R, Jacquemot, M, Bader-Meunier, B, Fridman, S, Codaccioni, X, Maxingue, F, Thomas, D, Alain, J, De Lumley, L, Tabaste, J, Bailly Salin, P, Seaume, H, Guichard, A, Kebaïll, K, Roussouly, C, Botto, C, De Lanete, A, Wipff, P, Cravello, L, De Boisse, P, Leclaire, M, Michel, G, Crumiere, C, Lefevre, V, Le Lorier, B, Pauly, I, Robichez, B, Seguy, D, Delhinger, M, Rideau, F, Talon, P, Benos, P, Huret, C, Nicolas, J, Heller-Roussin, B, Saint-Leger, S, Delaporte, M, Hubert, C, De Sarcus, B, Karoubi, P, Mechinaud, F, Bertcrottiere, D, Bongain, A, Monpoux, F, De Gennes, C, Devianne, F, Nisand, I, Rousset, M, Mouchnino, G, Muray, J, Munzer, M, Quereux, C, Brossard, V, Clavier, B, Allemon, M, Rotten, D, Stephan, J, Varlet, M, Guyot, B, Narcy, P, Bardinet, F, De Caunes, F, Jeny, R, Robin, M, Raison Boulley, A, Savey, L, Berrebi, A, Tricoire, J, Borderon, J, Fignon, A, Guillot, F, Maria, B, Broyard, A, Chitrit, Y, Firtion, G, Lafay Pillet, M, Parat, S, Boissinot, C, Garec, N, Levine, M, Ottenwalter, A, Schaller, F, Vilmer, E, Courpotin, C, Brunner, C, Ciraru-Vigneron, N, Hatem-Gantzer, G, Fritel, X, Wallet, A, Bouille, J, Milliez, J, Bensaid Mrejen, D, Dermer, E, Noseda, G, Bardou, D, Cressaty, J, Francoual, C, Carlus Moncomble, C, Cohen, H, Blanche, S, Bastion, H, Benifla, J, Benkhatar, F, Berkane, N, Hervé, F, Ronzier, M, Ferraris, G, Tulisso, S, Scolfaro, C, Riva, C, Vierucci, A, de Luca, M, Farina, S, Fundarò, C, Genovese, O, Mereu, G, Forni, G, Falconieri, P, Zuccotti, G, Riva, E, Cellini, M, Baraldi, C, Consolini, R, Palla, G, Ruggeri, M, Pignata, C, Guarino, A, Osimani, P, Metri, A, Antonellini, A, Benaglia, G, Romano, A, De Mattia, D, Caselli, D, Boni, S, Dell'Erba, G, Bassanetti, F, Sticca, M, Timpano, C, Magnani, C, Salvatore, C, Gambaretto, G, Lipreri, R, Tornaghi, R, Pinzani, R, Cecchi, M, Bezzi, T, Battisti, L, Bresciani, E, Gattinara, G, Berrino, R, Pellegatta, A, Mazza, A, Baldi, F, Micheletti, E, Altobelli, R, Deiana, M, Colnaghi, C, Tarallo, L, Tondo, U, Anastasio, E, Chiriacò, P, Contardi, I, Ruggeri, C, Ibba, P, O'Sullivan, M, Malmsberry, A, Willoughby, A, Goedert, J, Mendez, H, Holman, S, Rubinstein, A, Nesheim, S, Clark, S, Lee, F, Nahmias, A, Sawyer, M, Vink, P, Alger, L, Abrams, E, Bamji, M, Lambert, G, Schoenbaum, E, Thea, D, Thomas, P, Palumbo, P, Denny, T, Oleske, J, Orloff, S, Ethier-Ives, J, Rogers, M, Kutner, M, Kaplan, S, Kattan, M, Lipshultz, S, Sopko, G, Sloand, E, Wu, M, Nadal, D, Siegrist, CA, Wyler, CA, Cheseaux, JJ, Aebi, C, Gnehm, H, Schubiger, G, Klingler, J, Hunziker, U, Kuchler, H, Gianinazzi, M, Buhlmann, U, Biedermann, K, Lauper, U, Irion, O, Brunelli, A, Spoletini, G, Schreyer, A, Hosli, I, Saurenmann, E, Drack, G, Isenschmid, M, Poorbeik, M, Schupbach, J, Perrin, L, Erb, P, Joller, H, Dillon, M, Boyer, P, Liao, D, Keller, M, Deveikis, A, Khoury, M, Diaz, C, Pacheco-Acosta, E, Cooper, E, Mesthene, D, Pitt, J, Higgins, A, Moroso, G, Rich, K, Turpin, D, Cooper, N, Smeriglio, V, McKinlay, S & Ellis, S 1999, 'The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies', New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 13, pp. 977-987. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199904013401301
Andiman, W. ; Boucher, M. ; Burns, D. ; Bryson, Y. ; Farley, J. ; Fowler, M. ; Gabiano, C. ; Galli, L. ; Hutto, C. ; Kind, C. ; Korber, B. ; Kovacs, A. ; Krogstad, P. ; Landesman, S. ; Lapointe, N. ; Lemay, M. ; Lew, J. ; Mandelbrot, L. ; Mayaux, M. J. ; Mellins, R. ; Minkoff, H. ; Mofenson, L. ; Nielsen, K. ; Newell, M. L. ; Pardi, G. ; Peavy, H. ; Peckham, C. ; Read, J. ; Rother, C. ; Rudin, C. ; Scott, G. ; Semprini, A. ; Shearer, W. ; Simonds, R. ; Simpson, B. ; Stek, A. ; Tovo, P. A. ; Tuomala, R. ; Van Dyke, R. ; Weedon, J. ; de Martino, M. ; Harris, D. ; Lindsay, M. ; Belair, S. ; Chan, L. ; Kalish, L. ; Muenz, L. ; Nugent, R. ; Schluchter, M. ; Durako, S. ; Goodwin, S. ; Mitchell, R. ; Nourjah, P. ; Owen, W. ; Widmayer, S. ; Bardeguez, A. ; Hanson, C. ; Wiznia, A. ; Luzuriaga, K. ; Viscarello, R. ; Ho, D. ; Koup, R. ; Chen, I. ; Mullins, J. ; Wolinsky, S. ; Walker, B. ; Ammann, A. ; Clapp, S. ; McDonald, D. ; Fauvel, M. ; Hankins, C. ; Samson, J. ; Bailey, A. ; Giaquinto, C. ; Ruga, E. ; De Rossi, A. ; Truscia, D. ; Grosch-Wörner, I. ; Schäfer, A. ; Mok, J. ; Johnstone, F. ; Jiminez, J. ; de Alba, C. ; Garcia-Rodriguez, M. ; Bates, I. ; de José, I. ; Hawkins, F. ; Martinez Zapico, R. ; Asensi-Botet, F. ; Otero, M. ; Pérez-Tamarit, D. ; Moya, A. ; Galbis, M. ; Scherpbier, H. ; Boer, K. ; Bohlin, A. ; Lindgren, S. ; Ehrnst, A. ; Anzén, B. ; Belfrage, E. ; Levy, J. ; Alimenti, A. ; Barlow, P. ; Ferrazin, A. ; De Maria, A. ; Gotta, C. ; Maritati, V. ; Mûr, A. ; Rovira, M. ; Paya, A. ; Coll, O. ; Fortuny, C. ; Boguña, J. ; Casellas Caro, M. ; Canet, Y. ; Ravizza, M. ; Castagna, C. ; Fiore, S. ; Guerra, B. ; Lanari, M. ; Bianchi, S. ; Bovicelli, L. ; Prati, E. ; Zanelli, S. ; Duse, M. ; Soresina, A. ; Scaravelli, G. ; Stegagno, M. ; De Santis, M. ; Muggiasca, M. ; Viganó, A. ; Marchisio, P. ; Iasci, A. ; Spinillo, A. ; Bucceri, A. ; Grossi, E. ; Rancilio, L. ; Della Torre, M. ; Parazzini, F. ; Dallacasa, P. ; Bianchi, U. ; Pachì, A. ; Mancuso, S. ; Villa, P. ; Conti, M. ; Principi, N. ; Zara, C. ; Ravagni, F. ; Vignali, M. ; Rossi, G. ; Selvaggi, L. ; Greco, P. ; Vimercati, A. ; Massi, G. ; Innocenti, T. ; Fiscella, A. ; Martinelli, P. ; Sansone, M. ; Benedetto, C. ; Tibaldi, C. ; Ziarati, N. ; Tadrist, B. ; Thevenieau, D. ; Gondry, J. ; Paulard, B. ; Alisy, C. ; Brault, D. ; Tordjeman, N. ; Mamou, J. ; Rozan, M. ; Colombani, D. ; Pincemaille, O. ; Salvetti, A. ; Chabanier, C. ; Hernandorena, X. ; Leroy, J. ; Schaal, J. ; Balde, P. ; Faucher, P. ; Lachassinne, E. ; Benoit, S. ; Douard, D. ; Hocke, C. ; Barjot, P. ; Brouard, J. ; Delattre, P. ; Stien, L. ; Audibert, F. ; Labrune, P. ; Vial, M. ; Mazy, F. ; Sitbon, D. ; Crenn-Hebert, C. ; Floch-Tudal, C. ; Akakpo, R. ; Daveau, C. ; Leblanc, A. ; Cesbron, P. ; Duval-Arnould, M. ; Huraux-Rendu, C. ; Lemerle, S. ; Touboul, C. ; Guerin, M. ; Maingueneau, C. ; Reynaud, I. ; Rousseau, T. ; Ercoil, V. ; Lanza, M. ; Denavit, M. ; Garnier, J. ; Lahsinat, K. ; Pia, P. ; Allouche, C. ; Nardou, M. ; Grall, F. ; May, A. ; Dallot, M. ; Lhuillier, P. ; Cecile, W. ; Mezin, R. ; Bech, A. ; Lobut, J. ; Algava, G. ; Chalvon Dermesay, A. ; Busuttil, R. ; Jacquemot, M. ; Bader-Meunier, B. ; Fridman, S. ; Codaccioni, X. ; Maxingue, F. ; Thomas, D. ; Alain, J. ; De Lumley, L. ; Tabaste, J. ; Bailly Salin, P. ; Seaume, H. ; Guichard, A. ; Kebaïll, K. ; Roussouly, C. ; Botto, C. ; De Lanete, A. ; Wipff, P. ; Cravello, L. ; De Boisse, P. ; Leclaire, M. ; Michel, G. ; Crumiere, C. ; Lefevre, V. ; Le Lorier, B. ; Pauly, I. ; Robichez, B. ; Seguy, D. ; Delhinger, M. ; Rideau, F. ; Talon, P. ; Benos, P. ; Huret, C. ; Nicolas, J. ; Heller-Roussin, B. ; Saint-Leger, S. ; Delaporte, M. ; Hubert, C. ; De Sarcus, B. ; Karoubi, P. ; Mechinaud, F. ; Bertcrottiere, D. ; Bongain, A. ; Monpoux, F. ; De Gennes, C. ; Devianne, F. ; Nisand, I. ; Rousset, M. ; Mouchnino, G. ; Muray, J. ; Munzer, M. ; Quereux, C. ; Brossard, V. ; Clavier, B. ; Allemon, M. ; Rotten, D. ; Stephan, J. ; Varlet, M. ; Guyot, B. ; Narcy, P. ; Bardinet, F. ; De Caunes, F. ; Jeny, R. ; Robin, M. ; Raison Boulley, A. ; Savey, L. ; Berrebi, A. ; Tricoire, J. ; Borderon, J. ; Fignon, A. ; Guillot, F. ; Maria, B. ; Broyard, A. ; Chitrit, Y. ; Firtion, G. ; Lafay Pillet, M. ; Parat, S. ; Boissinot, C. ; Garec, N. ; Levine, M. ; Ottenwalter, A. ; Schaller, F. ; Vilmer, E. ; Courpotin, C. ; Brunner, C. ; Ciraru-Vigneron, N. ; Hatem-Gantzer, G. ; Fritel, X. ; Wallet, A. ; Bouille, J. ; Milliez, J. ; Bensaid Mrejen, D. ; Dermer, E. ; Noseda, G. ; Bardou, D. ; Cressaty, J. ; Francoual, C. ; Carlus Moncomble, C. ; Cohen, H. ; Blanche, S. ; Bastion, H. ; Benifla, J. ; Benkhatar, F. ; Berkane, N. ; Hervé, F. ; Ronzier, M. ; Ferraris, G. ; Tulisso, S. ; Scolfaro, C. ; Riva, C. ; Vierucci, A. ; de Luca, M. ; Farina, S. ; Fundarò, C. ; Genovese, O. ; Mereu, G. ; Forni, G. ; Falconieri, P. ; Zuccotti, G. ; Riva, E. ; Cellini, M. ; Baraldi, C. ; Consolini, R. ; Palla, G. ; Ruggeri, M. ; Pignata, C. ; Guarino, A. ; Osimani, P. ; Metri, A. ; Antonellini, A. ; Benaglia, G. ; Romano, A. ; De Mattia, D. ; Caselli, D. ; Boni, S. ; Dell'Erba, G. ; Bassanetti, F. ; Sticca, M. ; Timpano, C. ; Magnani, C. ; Salvatore, C. ; Gambaretto, G. ; Lipreri, R. ; Tornaghi, R. ; Pinzani, R. ; Cecchi, M. ; Bezzi, T. ; Battisti, L. ; Bresciani, E. ; Gattinara, G. ; Berrino, R. ; Pellegatta, A. ; Mazza, A. ; Baldi, F. ; Micheletti, E. ; Altobelli, R. ; Deiana, M. ; Colnaghi, C. ; Tarallo, L. ; Tondo, U. ; Anastasio, E. ; Chiriacò, P. ; Contardi, I. ; Ruggeri, C. ; Ibba, P. ; O'Sullivan, M. ; Malmsberry, A. ; Willoughby, A. ; Goedert, J. ; Mendez, H. ; Holman, S. ; Rubinstein, A. ; Nesheim, S. ; Clark, S. ; Lee, F. ; Nahmias, A. ; Sawyer, M. ; Vink, P. ; Alger, L. ; Abrams, E. ; Bamji, M. ; Lambert, G. ; Schoenbaum, E. ; Thea, D. ; Thomas, P. ; Palumbo, P. ; Denny, T. ; Oleske, J. ; Orloff, S. ; Ethier-Ives, J. ; Rogers, M. ; Kutner, M. ; Kaplan, S. ; Kattan, M. ; Lipshultz, S. ; Sopko, G. ; Sloand, E. ; Wu, M. ; Nadal, D. ; Siegrist, C. A. ; Wyler, C. A. ; Cheseaux, J. J. ; Aebi, C. ; Gnehm, H. ; Schubiger, G. ; Klingler, J. ; Hunziker, U. ; Kuchler, H. ; Gianinazzi, M. ; Buhlmann, U. ; Biedermann, K. ; Lauper, U. ; Irion, O. ; Brunelli, A. ; Spoletini, G. ; Schreyer, A. ; Hosli, I. ; Saurenmann, E. ; Drack, G. ; Isenschmid, M. ; Poorbeik, M. ; Schupbach, J. ; Perrin, L. ; Erb, P. ; Joller, H. ; Dillon, M. ; Boyer, P. ; Liao, D. ; Keller, M. ; Deveikis, A. ; Khoury, M. ; Diaz, C. ; Pacheco-Acosta, E. ; Cooper, E. ; Mesthene, D. ; Pitt, J. ; Higgins, A. ; Moroso, G. ; Rich, K. ; Turpin, D. ; Cooper, N. ; Smeriglio, V. ; McKinlay, S. ; Ellis, S. / The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 : A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. In: New England Journal of Medicine. 1999 ; Vol. 340, No. 13. pp. 977-987.
@article{9f81a6edf13d419f803a6948513ca6b8,
title = "The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies",
abstract = "Background: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. Methods: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. Results: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.",
author = "W. Andiman and M. Boucher and D. Burns and Y. Bryson and J. Farley and M. Fowler and C. Gabiano and L. Galli and C. Hutto and C. Kind and B. Korber and A. Kovacs and P. Krogstad and S. Landesman and N. Lapointe and M. Lemay and J. Lew and L. Mandelbrot and Mayaux, {M. J.} and R. Mellins and H. Minkoff and L. Mofenson and K. Nielsen and Newell, {M. L.} and G. Pardi and H. Peavy and C. Peckham and J. Read and C. Rother and C. Rudin and G. Scott and A. Semprini and W. Shearer and R. Simonds and B. Simpson and A. Stek and Tovo, {P. A.} and R. Tuomala and {Van Dyke}, R. and J. Weedon and {de Martino}, M. and D. Harris and M. Lindsay and S. Belair and L. Chan and L. Kalish and L. Muenz and R. Nugent and M. Schluchter and S. Durako and S. Goodwin and R. Mitchell and P. Nourjah and W. Owen and S. Widmayer and A. Bardeguez and C. Hanson and A. Wiznia and K. Luzuriaga and R. Viscarello and D. Ho and R. Koup and I. Chen and J. Mullins and S. Wolinsky and B. Walker and A. Ammann and S. Clapp and D. McDonald and M. Fauvel and C. Hankins and J. Samson and A. Bailey and C. Giaquinto and E. Ruga and {De Rossi}, A. and D. Truscia and I. Grosch-W{\"o}rner and A. Sch{\"a}fer and J. Mok and F. Johnstone and J. Jiminez and {de Alba}, C. and M. Garcia-Rodriguez and I. Bates and {de Jos{\'e}}, I. and F. Hawkins and {Martinez Zapico}, R. and F. Asensi-Botet and M. Otero and D. P{\'e}rez-Tamarit and A. Moya and M. Galbis and H. Scherpbier and K. Boer and A. Bohlin and S. Lindgren and A. Ehrnst and B. Anz{\'e}n and E. Belfrage and J. Levy and A. Alimenti and P. Barlow and A. Ferrazin and {De Maria}, A. and C. Gotta and V. Maritati and A. M{\^u}r and M. Rovira and A. Paya and O. Coll and C. Fortuny and J. Bogu{\~n}a and {Casellas Caro}, M. and Y. Canet and M. Ravizza and C. Castagna and S. Fiore and B. Guerra and M. Lanari and S. Bianchi and L. Bovicelli and E. Prati and S. Zanelli and M. Duse and A. Soresina and G. Scaravelli and M. Stegagno and {De Santis}, M. and M. Muggiasca and A. Vigan{\'o} and P. Marchisio and A. Iasci and A. Spinillo and A. Bucceri and E. Grossi and L. Rancilio and {Della Torre}, M. and F. Parazzini and P. Dallacasa and U. Bianchi and A. Pach{\`i} and S. Mancuso and P. Villa and M. Conti and N. Principi and C. Zara and F. Ravagni and M. Vignali and G. Rossi and L. Selvaggi and P. Greco and A. Vimercati and G. Massi and T. Innocenti and A. Fiscella and P. Martinelli and M. Sansone and C. Benedetto and C. Tibaldi and N. Ziarati and B. Tadrist and D. Thevenieau and J. Gondry and B. Paulard and C. Alisy and D. Brault and N. Tordjeman and J. Mamou and M. Rozan and D. Colombani and O. Pincemaille and A. Salvetti and C. Chabanier and X. Hernandorena and J. Leroy and J. Schaal and P. Balde and P. Faucher and E. Lachassinne and S. Benoit and D. Douard and C. Hocke and P. Barjot and J. Brouard and P. Delattre and L. Stien and F. Audibert and P. Labrune and M. Vial and F. Mazy and D. Sitbon and C. Crenn-Hebert and C. Floch-Tudal and R. Akakpo and C. Daveau and A. Leblanc and P. Cesbron and M. Duval-Arnould and C. Huraux-Rendu and S. Lemerle and C. Touboul and M. Guerin and C. Maingueneau and I. Reynaud and T. Rousseau and V. Ercoil and M. Lanza and M. Denavit and J. Garnier and K. Lahsinat and P. Pia and C. Allouche and M. Nardou and F. Grall and A. May and M. Dallot and P. Lhuillier and W. Cecile and R. Mezin and A. Bech and J. Lobut and G. Algava and {Chalvon Dermesay}, A. and R. Busuttil and M. Jacquemot and B. Bader-Meunier and S. Fridman and X. Codaccioni and F. Maxingue and D. Thomas and J. Alain and {De Lumley}, L. and J. Tabaste and {Bailly Salin}, P. and H. Seaume and A. Guichard and K. Keba{\"i}ll and C. Roussouly and C. Botto and {De Lanete}, A. and P. Wipff and L. Cravello and {De Boisse}, P. and M. Leclaire and G. Michel and C. Crumiere and V. Lefevre and {Le Lorier}, B. and I. Pauly and B. Robichez and D. Seguy and M. Delhinger and F. Rideau and P. Talon and P. Benos and C. Huret and J. Nicolas and B. Heller-Roussin and S. Saint-Leger and M. Delaporte and C. Hubert and {De Sarcus}, B. and P. Karoubi and F. Mechinaud and D. Bertcrottiere and A. Bongain and F. Monpoux and {De Gennes}, C. and F. Devianne and I. Nisand and M. Rousset and G. Mouchnino and J. Muray and M. Munzer and C. Quereux and V. Brossard and B. Clavier and M. Allemon and D. Rotten and J. Stephan and M. Varlet and B. Guyot and P. Narcy and F. Bardinet and {De Caunes}, F. and R. Jeny and M. Robin and {Raison Boulley}, A. and L. Savey and A. Berrebi and J. Tricoire and J. Borderon and A. Fignon and F. Guillot and B. Maria and A. Broyard and Y. Chitrit and G. Firtion and {Lafay Pillet}, M. and S. Parat and C. Boissinot and N. Garec and M. Levine and A. Ottenwalter and F. Schaller and E. Vilmer and C. Courpotin and C. Brunner and N. Ciraru-Vigneron and G. Hatem-Gantzer and X. Fritel and A. Wallet and J. Bouille and J. Milliez and {Bensaid Mrejen}, D. and E. Dermer and G. Noseda and D. Bardou and J. Cressaty and C. Francoual and {Carlus Moncomble}, C. and H. Cohen and S. Blanche and H. Bastion and J. Benifla and F. Benkhatar and N. Berkane and F. Herv{\'e} and M. Ronzier and G. Ferraris and S. Tulisso and C. Scolfaro and C. Riva and A. Vierucci and {de Luca}, M. and S. Farina and C. Fundar{\`o} and O. Genovese and G. Mereu and G. Forni and P. Falconieri and G. Zuccotti and E. Riva and M. Cellini and C. Baraldi and R. Consolini and G. Palla and M. Ruggeri and C. Pignata and A. Guarino and P. Osimani and A. Metri and A. Antonellini and G. Benaglia and A. Romano and {De Mattia}, D. and D. Caselli and S. Boni and G. Dell'Erba and F. Bassanetti and M. Sticca and C. Timpano and C. Magnani and C. Salvatore and G. Gambaretto and R. Lipreri and R. Tornaghi and R. Pinzani and M. Cecchi and T. Bezzi and L. Battisti and E. Bresciani and G. Gattinara and R. Berrino and A. Pellegatta and A. Mazza and F. Baldi and E. Micheletti and R. Altobelli and M. Deiana and C. Colnaghi and L. Tarallo and U. Tondo and E. Anastasio and P. Chiriac{\`o} and I. Contardi and C. Ruggeri and P. Ibba and M. O'Sullivan and A. Malmsberry and A. Willoughby and J. Goedert and H. Mendez and S. Holman and A. Rubinstein and S. Nesheim and S. Clark and F. Lee and A. Nahmias and M. Sawyer and P. Vink and L. Alger and E. Abrams and M. Bamji and G. Lambert and E. Schoenbaum and D. Thea and P. Thomas and P. Palumbo and T. Denny and J. Oleske and S. Orloff and J. Ethier-Ives and M. Rogers and M. Kutner and S. Kaplan and M. Kattan and S. Lipshultz and G. Sopko and E. Sloand and M. Wu and D. Nadal and Siegrist, {C. A.} and Wyler, {C. A.} and Cheseaux, {J. J.} and C. Aebi and H. Gnehm and G. Schubiger and J. Klingler and U. Hunziker and H. Kuchler and M. Gianinazzi and U. Buhlmann and K. Biedermann and U. Lauper and O. Irion and A. Brunelli and G. Spoletini and A. Schreyer and I. Hosli and E. Saurenmann and G. Drack and M. Isenschmid and M. Poorbeik and J. Schupbach and L. Perrin and P. Erb and H. Joller and M. Dillon and P. Boyer and D. Liao and M. Keller and A. Deveikis and M. Khoury and C. Diaz and E. Pacheco-Acosta and E. Cooper and D. Mesthene and J. Pitt and A. Higgins and G. Moroso and K. Rich and D. Turpin and N. Cooper and V. Smeriglio and S. McKinlay and S. Ellis",
year = "1999",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1056/NEJM199904013401301",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "340",
pages = "977--987",
journal = "New England Journal of Medicine",
issn = "0028-4793",
publisher = "Massachussetts Medical Society",
number = "13",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1

T2 - A meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

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AU - Bertcrottiere, D.

AU - Bongain, A.

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AU - De Gennes, C.

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AU - Brossard, V.

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AU - Stephan, J.

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AU - Hatem-Gantzer, G.

AU - Fritel, X.

AU - Wallet, A.

AU - Bouille, J.

AU - Milliez, J.

AU - Bensaid Mrejen, D.

AU - Dermer, E.

AU - Noseda, G.

AU - Bardou, D.

AU - Cressaty, J.

AU - Francoual, C.

AU - Carlus Moncomble, C.

AU - Cohen, H.

AU - Blanche, S.

AU - Bastion, H.

AU - Benifla, J.

AU - Benkhatar, F.

AU - Berkane, N.

AU - Hervé, F.

AU - Ronzier, M.

AU - Ferraris, G.

AU - Tulisso, S.

AU - Scolfaro, C.

AU - Riva, C.

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AU - Bezzi, T.

AU - Battisti, L.

AU - Bresciani, E.

AU - Gattinara, G.

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AU - O'Sullivan, M.

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AU - Goedert, J.

AU - Mendez, H.

AU - Holman, S.

AU - Rubinstein, A.

AU - Nesheim, S.

AU - Clark, S.

AU - Lee, F.

AU - Nahmias, A.

AU - Sawyer, M.

AU - Vink, P.

AU - Alger, L.

AU - Abrams, E.

AU - Bamji, M.

AU - Lambert, G.

AU - Schoenbaum, E.

AU - Thea, D.

AU - Thomas, P.

AU - Palumbo, P.

AU - Denny, T.

AU - Oleske, J.

AU - Orloff, S.

AU - Ethier-Ives, J.

AU - Rogers, M.

AU - Kutner, M.

AU - Kaplan, S.

AU - Kattan, M.

AU - Lipshultz, S.

AU - Sopko, G.

AU - Sloand, E.

AU - Wu, M.

AU - Nadal, D.

AU - Siegrist, C. A.

AU - Wyler, C. A.

AU - Cheseaux, J. J.

AU - Aebi, C.

AU - Gnehm, H.

AU - Schubiger, G.

AU - Klingler, J.

AU - Hunziker, U.

AU - Kuchler, H.

AU - Gianinazzi, M.

AU - Buhlmann, U.

AU - Biedermann, K.

AU - Lauper, U.

AU - Irion, O.

AU - Brunelli, A.

AU - Spoletini, G.

AU - Schreyer, A.

AU - Hosli, I.

AU - Saurenmann, E.

AU - Drack, G.

AU - Isenschmid, M.

AU - Poorbeik, M.

AU - Schupbach, J.

AU - Perrin, L.

AU - Erb, P.

AU - Joller, H.

AU - Dillon, M.

AU - Boyer, P.

AU - Liao, D.

AU - Keller, M.

AU - Deveikis, A.

AU - Khoury, M.

AU - Diaz, C.

AU - Pacheco-Acosta, E.

AU - Cooper, E.

AU - Mesthene, D.

AU - Pitt, J.

AU - Higgins, A.

AU - Moroso, G.

AU - Rich, K.

AU - Turpin, D.

AU - Cooper, N.

AU - Smeriglio, V.

AU - McKinlay, S.

AU - Ellis, S.

PY - 1999/4/1

Y1 - 1999/4/1

N2 - Background: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. Methods: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. Results: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.

AB - Background: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. Methods: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. Results: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033119011&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033119011&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1056/NEJM199904013401301

DO - 10.1056/NEJM199904013401301

M3 - Article

C2 - 10099139

AN - SCOPUS:0033119011

VL - 340

SP - 977

EP - 987

JO - New England Journal of Medicine

JF - New England Journal of Medicine

SN - 0028-4793

IS - 13

ER -