Prostatitis is a common urologic diagnosis. Although treatment algorithms are available for this poorly understood entity, several adaptations must be made in order to accommodate the therapeutic needs of HIV-positive patients. The most important consideration when treating HIV-infected patients for prostatitis is their current immune status, whether they are immunocompromised or not (non-progressive disease or reconstituted with highly active antiretroviral therapy). A treatment algorithm for those with chronic bacterial prostatitis (Category II), chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (Category MIA), and prostatodynia (Category IIIB) is presented in this article. In the HIV-positive patient population, there is a greater likelihood for atypical pathogens including fungi, tuberculosis, anaerobes, and viruses. Because the HIV-infected patient is at increased risk for the development of prostatic abscess and urosepsis than the general population, increased monitoring and evaluation and longer-term appropriately directed antimicrobial therapy are required.
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