It is important but remains unclear whether ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium heparin anticoagulants have different impacts on the levels of various metals in peripheral blood after long-term frozen storage. The concentrations of 22 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mg, Mo, Ni, Fe, Pb, Rb, Se, Sn, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, Zn) in whole blood, blood cells and plasma from 22 healthy participants were determined twice, 18 months apart, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean percentage error (MPE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the impact of the anticoagulants and long-term frozen storage on metal concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Sb and Ba in whole blood, blood cells and plasma were significantly altered by EDTA and sodium heparin at two measurement timepoints (P < 0.05 and MPE > 80%). In EDTA tubes, the Ti and Ni concentrations in blood cells were changed significantly; and in heparin tubes, the concentrations of Ni and Mo in blood cells and Sb in plasma were also altered (P < 0.05 and MPE > 80%). The ICCs of 11 metals in whole blood, 15 metals in blood cells and 16 metals in plasma remained unchanged in EDTA tubes, and 16 metals in whole blood, 15 metals in blood cells and 17 metals in plasma remained unchanged in heparin tubes (ICC > 0.40). Our study suggested the use of EDTA tubes to determine Sb concentrations in peripheral blood and heparin tubes to determine Ba concentrations. Additionally, heparin tubes may be more suited for determining multiple metal concentrations in whole blood, whereas for blood cells and plasma either EDTA or heparin tubes could be used.
- Blood cells
- Whole blood
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Metals and Alloys