The impact of COVID-19 vaccination on case fatality rates in a city in Southern Brazil

Hisrael Passarelli-Araujo, Henrique Pott-Junior, Aline M. Susuki, André S. Olak, Rodrigo R. Pescim, Maria F.A.I. Tomimatsu, Cilio J. Volce, Maria A.Z. Neves, Fernanda F. Silva, Simone G. Narciso, Michael Aschner, Monica M.B. Paoliello, Mariana R. Urbano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Recent studies have established that vaccination plays a significant role in reducing COVID-19-related deaths. Here, we investigated differences in COVID-19 case fatality rates (CFRs) among vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, and analyzed whether the age composition of confirmed cases has a significant effect on the variations in the observed CFRs across these groups. Methods: The study considered 59,853 confirmed cases and 1,687 deaths from COVID-19, reported between January 1 to October 20, 2021, by the Health Department of Londrina, a city in Southern Brazil. We used Negative Binomial regression models to estimate CFRs according to vaccination status and age range. Results: There are significant differences between the CFR for fully vaccinated and unvaccinated populations (IRR = 0.596, 95% CI [0.460 - 0.772], P < .001). Vaccinated populations experience fatality rates 40.4% lower than non-vaccinated. In addition, the age composition of confirmed cases explains more than two-thirds of the variation in the CFR between these 2 groups. Conclusions: Our novel findings reinforce the importance of vaccination as an essential public health measure for reducing COVID-19 fatality rates in all age groups. The results also provide means for accurately assessing differences in CFRs across vaccinated and unvaccinated populations. Such assessment is essential to inform and determine appropriate containment and mitigation interventions in Brazil and elsewhere.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Infection Control
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Demography
  • Public health
  • Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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