Cancer vaccination is less effective at old than at young age, due to T cell unresponsiveness, caused by various age-related changes of the immune system. This includes lack of naïve T cells, defects in activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment. Although evidence exists that also natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells of the innate immune system change with age, comparison of various studies involving adaptive and innate immune responses in elderly and cancer patients, as well as cancer vaccination at young and old age in this review, indicates that also innate immune responses should be tested as a potential candidate to improve immunotherapy against cancer at older age.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy