The growth arrest-specific gene product Gas6 promotes the survival of human oligodendrocytes via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway

Sai Latha Shankar, Kathleen O'Guin, Michael Cammer, F. Arthur McMorris, Trevor N. Stitt, Ross S. Basch, Brian Varnum, Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Microarray analysis revealed that transcripts for the Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed at high levels in 04 + - immunopanned oligodendrocytes isolated from second trimester human fetal spinal cord. In humans the sole known ligand for the Axl/Rse/Mer kinases is growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which in the CNS is secreted by neurons and endothelial cells. We hypothesized that Gas6 is a survival factor for oligodendrocytes and receptor activation signals downstream to the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway to increase cell survival in the absence of cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we grew enriched human oligodendrocytes for 6 d on a monolayer of NIH3T3 cells stably expressing Gas6. CNP+ oligodendrocytes on Gas6-secreting 3T3 cells had more primary processes and arborizations than those plated solely on 3T3 cells. Also, a twofold increase in CNP+ and MBP+ oligodendrocytes was observed when they were plated on the Gas6-secreting cells. The effect was abolished in the presence of Axl-Fc but remained unchanged in the presence of the irrelevant receptor fusion molecule TrkA-Fc. A significant decrease in CNP+/TUNEL+ oligodendrocytes was observed when recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) was administered to oligodendrocytes plated on poly-L-lysine, supporting a role for Gas6 signaling in oligodendrocyte survival during a period of active myelination in human fetal spinal cord development. PI3-kinase inhibitors blocked the anti-apoptotic effect of rhGas6, whereas a MEK/ERK inhibitor had no effect. Thus Gas6 sustains human fetal oligodendrocyte viability by receptor activation and downstream signaling via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4208-4218
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume23
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 15 2003

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Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
Oligodendroglia
Growth
Genes
3T3 Cells
Spinal Cord
Fetal Viability
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
In Situ Nick-End Labeling
Second Pregnancy Trimester
Microarray Analysis
Lysine
Cell Survival
Phosphotransferases
Endothelial Cells
Cell Proliferation
Ligands
Neurons

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Axl/Rse/Mer
  • Gas6
  • Human spinal cord
  • Oligodendrocytes
  • Tyrosine kinase receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

The growth arrest-specific gene product Gas6 promotes the survival of human oligodendrocytes via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. / Shankar, Sai Latha; O'Guin, Kathleen; Cammer, Michael; McMorris, F. Arthur; Stitt, Trevor N.; Basch, Ross S.; Varnum, Brian; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 23, No. 10, 15.05.2003, p. 4208-4218.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shankar, Sai Latha ; O'Guin, Kathleen ; Cammer, Michael ; McMorris, F. Arthur ; Stitt, Trevor N. ; Basch, Ross S. ; Varnum, Brian ; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget. / The growth arrest-specific gene product Gas6 promotes the survival of human oligodendrocytes via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2003 ; Vol. 23, No. 10. pp. 4208-4218.
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T1 - The growth arrest-specific gene product Gas6 promotes the survival of human oligodendrocytes via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway

AU - Shankar, Sai Latha

AU - O'Guin, Kathleen

AU - Cammer, Michael

AU - McMorris, F. Arthur

AU - Stitt, Trevor N.

AU - Basch, Ross S.

AU - Varnum, Brian

AU - Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget

PY - 2003/5/15

Y1 - 2003/5/15

N2 - Microarray analysis revealed that transcripts for the Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed at high levels in 04 + - immunopanned oligodendrocytes isolated from second trimester human fetal spinal cord. In humans the sole known ligand for the Axl/Rse/Mer kinases is growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which in the CNS is secreted by neurons and endothelial cells. We hypothesized that Gas6 is a survival factor for oligodendrocytes and receptor activation signals downstream to the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway to increase cell survival in the absence of cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we grew enriched human oligodendrocytes for 6 d on a monolayer of NIH3T3 cells stably expressing Gas6. CNP+ oligodendrocytes on Gas6-secreting 3T3 cells had more primary processes and arborizations than those plated solely on 3T3 cells. Also, a twofold increase in CNP+ and MBP+ oligodendrocytes was observed when they were plated on the Gas6-secreting cells. The effect was abolished in the presence of Axl-Fc but remained unchanged in the presence of the irrelevant receptor fusion molecule TrkA-Fc. A significant decrease in CNP+/TUNEL+ oligodendrocytes was observed when recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) was administered to oligodendrocytes plated on poly-L-lysine, supporting a role for Gas6 signaling in oligodendrocyte survival during a period of active myelination in human fetal spinal cord development. PI3-kinase inhibitors blocked the anti-apoptotic effect of rhGas6, whereas a MEK/ERK inhibitor had no effect. Thus Gas6 sustains human fetal oligodendrocyte viability by receptor activation and downstream signaling via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

AB - Microarray analysis revealed that transcripts for the Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases are expressed at high levels in 04 + - immunopanned oligodendrocytes isolated from second trimester human fetal spinal cord. In humans the sole known ligand for the Axl/Rse/Mer kinases is growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), which in the CNS is secreted by neurons and endothelial cells. We hypothesized that Gas6 is a survival factor for oligodendrocytes and receptor activation signals downstream to the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt pathway to increase cell survival in the absence of cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we grew enriched human oligodendrocytes for 6 d on a monolayer of NIH3T3 cells stably expressing Gas6. CNP+ oligodendrocytes on Gas6-secreting 3T3 cells had more primary processes and arborizations than those plated solely on 3T3 cells. Also, a twofold increase in CNP+ and MBP+ oligodendrocytes was observed when they were plated on the Gas6-secreting cells. The effect was abolished in the presence of Axl-Fc but remained unchanged in the presence of the irrelevant receptor fusion molecule TrkA-Fc. A significant decrease in CNP+/TUNEL+ oligodendrocytes was observed when recombinant human Gas6 (rhGas6) was administered to oligodendrocytes plated on poly-L-lysine, supporting a role for Gas6 signaling in oligodendrocyte survival during a period of active myelination in human fetal spinal cord development. PI3-kinase inhibitors blocked the anti-apoptotic effect of rhGas6, whereas a MEK/ERK inhibitor had no effect. Thus Gas6 sustains human fetal oligodendrocyte viability by receptor activation and downstream signaling via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

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