The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013

findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

Jeffrey D. Stanaway, Abraham D. Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Christina Fitzmaurice, Theo Vos, Ibrahim Abubakar, Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Reza Assadi, Neeraj Bhala, Benjamin Cowie, Mohammad H. Forouzanfour, Justina L. Groeger, Khayriyyah Mohd Hanafiah, Kathryn H. Jacobsen, Spencer L. James, Jennifer MacLachlan, Reza Malekzadeh, Natasha K. Martin, Ali A. Mokdad, Ali H. Mokdad & 16 others Christopher J.L. Murray, Dietrich Plass, Saleem Rana, David B. Rein, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Juan Sanabria, Mete Saylan, Saeid Shahraz, Samuel So, Vasiliy V. Vlassov, Elisabete Weiderpass, Steven T. Wiersma, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Graham S. Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

435 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1081-1088
Number of pages8
JournalThe Lancet
Volume388
Issue number10049
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 10 2016
Externally publishedYes

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Viral Load
Hepatitis
Liver Neoplasms
Fibrosis
Cause of Death
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Uncertainty
Vaccines
Global Burden of Disease
Mortality
Natural History
Communicable Diseases
Public Health
Morbidity
Health
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Stanaway, J. D., Flaxman, A. D., Naghavi, M., Fitzmaurice, C., Vos, T., Abubakar, I., ... Cooke, G. S. (2016). The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, 388(10049), 1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30579-7

The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. / Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Vos, Theo; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Assadi, Reza; Bhala, Neeraj; Cowie, Benjamin; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H.; Groeger, Justina L.; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; James, Spencer L.; MacLachlan, Jennifer; Malekzadeh, Reza; Martin, Natasha K.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Plass, Dietrich; Rana, Saleem; Rein, David B.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Sanabria, Juan; Saylan, Mete; Shahraz, Saeid; So, Samuel; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wiersma, Steven T.; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Cooke, Graham S.

In: The Lancet, Vol. 388, No. 10049, 10.09.2016, p. 1081-1088.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stanaway, JD, Flaxman, AD, Naghavi, M, Fitzmaurice, C, Vos, T, Abubakar, I, Abu-Raddad, LJ, Assadi, R, Bhala, N, Cowie, B, Forouzanfour, MH, Groeger, JL, Hanafiah, KM, Jacobsen, KH, James, SL, MacLachlan, J, Malekzadeh, R, Martin, NK, Mokdad, AA, Mokdad, AH, Murray, CJL, Plass, D, Rana, S, Rein, DB, Richardus, JH, Sanabria, J, Saylan, M, Shahraz, S, So, S, Vlassov, VV, Weiderpass, E, Wiersma, ST, Younis, M, Yu, C, El Sayed Zaki, M & Cooke, GS 2016, 'The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013', The Lancet, vol. 388, no. 10049, pp. 1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30579-7
Stanaway JD, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Fitzmaurice C, Vos T, Abubakar I et al. The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2016 Sep 10;388(10049):1081-1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30579-7
Stanaway, Jeffrey D. ; Flaxman, Abraham D. ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Fitzmaurice, Christina ; Vos, Theo ; Abubakar, Ibrahim ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Assadi, Reza ; Bhala, Neeraj ; Cowie, Benjamin ; Forouzanfour, Mohammad H. ; Groeger, Justina L. ; Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd ; Jacobsen, Kathryn H. ; James, Spencer L. ; MacLachlan, Jennifer ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Martin, Natasha K. ; Mokdad, Ali A. ; Mokdad, Ali H. ; Murray, Christopher J.L. ; Plass, Dietrich ; Rana, Saleem ; Rein, David B. ; Richardus, Jan Hendrik ; Sanabria, Juan ; Saylan, Mete ; Shahraz, Saeid ; So, Samuel ; Vlassov, Vasiliy V. ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Wiersma, Steven T. ; Younis, Mustafa ; Yu, Chuanhua ; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa ; Cooke, Graham S. / The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013 : findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. In: The Lancet. 2016 ; Vol. 388, No. 10049. pp. 1081-1088.
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abstract = "Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95{\%} uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95{\%} UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.",
author = "Stanaway, {Jeffrey D.} and Flaxman, {Abraham D.} and Mohsen Naghavi and Christina Fitzmaurice and Theo Vos and Ibrahim Abubakar and Abu-Raddad, {Laith J.} and Reza Assadi and Neeraj Bhala and Benjamin Cowie and Forouzanfour, {Mohammad H.} and Groeger, {Justina L.} and Hanafiah, {Khayriyyah Mohd} and Jacobsen, {Kathryn H.} and James, {Spencer L.} and Jennifer MacLachlan and Reza Malekzadeh and Martin, {Natasha K.} and Mokdad, {Ali A.} and Mokdad, {Ali H.} and Murray, {Christopher J.L.} and Dietrich Plass and Saleem Rana and Rein, {David B.} and Richardus, {Jan Hendrik} and Juan Sanabria and Mete Saylan and Saeid Shahraz and Samuel So and Vlassov, {Vasiliy V.} and Elisabete Weiderpass and Wiersma, {Steven T.} and Mustafa Younis and Chuanhua Yu and {El Sayed Zaki}, Maysaa and Cooke, {Graham S.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The global burden of viral hepatitis from 1990 to 2013

T2 - findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

AU - Stanaway, Jeffrey D.

AU - Flaxman, Abraham D.

AU - Naghavi, Mohsen

AU - Fitzmaurice, Christina

AU - Vos, Theo

AU - Abubakar, Ibrahim

AU - Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

AU - Assadi, Reza

AU - Bhala, Neeraj

AU - Cowie, Benjamin

AU - Forouzanfour, Mohammad H.

AU - Groeger, Justina L.

AU - Hanafiah, Khayriyyah Mohd

AU - Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

AU - James, Spencer L.

AU - MacLachlan, Jennifer

AU - Malekzadeh, Reza

AU - Martin, Natasha K.

AU - Mokdad, Ali A.

AU - Mokdad, Ali H.

AU - Murray, Christopher J.L.

AU - Plass, Dietrich

AU - Rana, Saleem

AU - Rein, David B.

AU - Richardus, Jan Hendrik

AU - Sanabria, Juan

AU - Saylan, Mete

AU - Shahraz, Saeid

AU - So, Samuel

AU - Vlassov, Vasiliy V.

AU - Weiderpass, Elisabete

AU - Wiersma, Steven T.

AU - Younis, Mustafa

AU - Yu, Chuanhua

AU - El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa

AU - Cooke, Graham S.

PY - 2016/9/10

Y1 - 2016/9/10

N2 - Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

AB - Background With recent improvements in vaccines and treatments against viral hepatitis, an improved understanding of the burden of viral hepatitis is needed to inform global intervention strategies. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to estimate morbidity and mortality for acute viral hepatitis, and for cirrhosis and liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis, by age, sex, and country from 1990 to 2013. Methods We estimated mortality using natural history models for acute hepatitis infections and GBD's cause-of-death ensemble model for cirrhosis and liver cancer. We used meta-regression to estimate total cirrhosis and total liver cancer prevalence, as well as the proportion of cirrhosis and liver cancer attributable to each cause. We then estimated cause-specific prevalence as the product of the total prevalence and the proportion attributable to a specific cause. Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Findings Between 1990 and 2013, global viral hepatitis deaths increased from 0·89 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 0·86–0·94) to 1·45 million (1·38–1·54); YLLs from 31·0 million (29·6–32·6) to 41·6 million (39·1–44·7); YLDs from 0·65 million (0·45–0·89) to 0·87 million (0·61–1·18); and DALYs from 31·7 million (30·2–33·3) to 42·5 million (39·9–45·6). In 2013, viral hepatitis was the seventh (95% UI seventh to eighth) leading cause of death worldwide, compared with tenth (tenth to 12th) in 1990. Interpretation Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Unlike most communicable diseases, the absolute burden and relative rank of viral hepatitis increased between 1990 and 2013. The enormous health loss attributable to viral hepatitis, and the availability of effective vaccines and treatments, suggests an important opportunity to improve public health. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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