BACKGROUND: Men of African descent have the highest incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PrCa) worldwide. Notably, PrCa is increasing in Africa with Nigerian men being mostly affected. Thus, it is important to understand risk factors for PrCa in Nigeria and build capacity for cancer research. The goals of this study were to determine the feasibility of conducting an epidemiological study of PrCa and to obtain preliminary data on risk factors for PrCa in Nigeria.
METHODS: A case-control study (50 cases/50 controls) was conducted at the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, between October 2011 and December 2012. Men aged 40 to 80 years were approached for the study and asked to provide informed consent and complete the research protocol. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics and risk of PrCa.
RESULTS: The participation rate among cases and controls was 98% and 93%, respectively. All participants completed a questionnaire and 99% (50 cases/49 controls) provided blood samples. Cases had a median serum diagnostic PSA of 73 ng/ml, and 38% had a Gleason score 8-10 tumor. Family history of PrCa was associated with a 4.9-fold increased risk of PrCa (95% CI 1.0 - 24.8). There were statistically significant inverse associations between PrCa and height, weight and waist circumference, but there was no association with body mass index (kg/m(2)). There were no associations between other socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and PrCa risk.
CONCLUSION: This feasibility study demonstrated the ability to ascertain and recruit participants at UCH and collect epidemiological, clinical and biospecimen data. Our results highlighted the advanced clinical characteristics of PrCa in Nigerian men, and that family history of PrCa and some anthropometric factors were associated with PrCa risk in this population. However, larger studies are needed to better understand the epidemiological risk factors of PrCa in Nigeria.
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