Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are newer therapies being applied to an increasing number of patients with cancer. Data suggest that up to 36% of cancer patients may be eligible for immunotherapy and, in late 2019, there were more than 3,362 clinical trials initiated to evaluate the effectiveness of immunotherapy, either as single agents or in combination with other immunotherapy, targeted therapies, or traditional cytotoxic or radiation therapy. With the combination of both immune and non-immune treatment approaches, the complexity in making the diagnosis of cardiotoxicity related to an ICI will increase substantially. Here, we summarize the published data on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of cardiotoxicity of ICIs. This is a rapidly evolving field, and as our understanding continues to evolve, previously considered hypotheses may not prove to be entirely correct. Research and continued collaborations are urgently needed to provide evidence-based cardiovascular care for this rapidly expanding and vulnerable cohort of patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine