The cytotoxic effects of regorafenib in combination with protein kinase D inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

Ning Wei, Edward Chu, Shao yu Wu, Peter Wipf, John C. Schmitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains a major public health problem, and diagnosis of metastatic disease is usually associated with poor prognosis. The multi-kinase inhibitor regorafenib was approved in 2013 in the U.S. for the treatment of mCRC patients who progressed after standard therapies. However, the clinical efficacy of regorafenib is quite limited. One potential strategy to improve mCRC therapy is to combine agents that target key cellular signaling pathways, which may lead to synergistic enhancement of antitumor efficacy and overcome cellular drug resistance. Protein kinase D (PKD), a family of serine/threonine kinases, mediates key signaling pathways implicated in multiple cellular processes. Herein, we evaluated the combination of regorafenib with a PKD inhibitor in several human CRC cells. Using the Chou-Talalay model, the combination index values for this combination treatment demonstrated synergistic effects on inhibition of cell proliferation and clonal formation. This drug combination resulted in induction of apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry, increased PARP cleavage, and decreased activation of the anti-apoptotic protein HSP27. This combination also yielded enhanced inhibition of ERK, AKT, and NF-κB signaling. Taken together, PKD inhibition in combination with regorafenib appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of mCRC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4745-4756
Number of pages12
JournalOncotarget
Volume6
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • Human colorectal cancer
  • NF-κB
  • Protein kinase D
  • Regorafenib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology

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