The colon: From banal to brilliant

Rani S. Sellers, Daniel Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Scopus citations

Abstract

The colon serves as the habitat for trillions of microbes, which it must maintain, regulate, and sequester. This is managed by what is termed the mucosal barrier. The mucosal barrier separates the gut flora from the host tissues; regulates the absorption of water, electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins; and facilitates host-flora interactions. Colonic homeostasis depends on a complex interaction between the microflora and the mucosal epithelium, immune system, vasculature, stroma, and nervous system. Disruptions in the colonic microenvironment such as changes in microbial composition, epithelial cell function/proliferation/differentiation, mucus production/makeup, immune function, diet, motility, or blood flow may have substantial local and systemic consequences. Understanding the complex activities of the colon in health and disease is important in drug development, as xenobiotics can impact all segments of the colon. Direct and indirect effects of pharmaceuticals on intestinal function can produce adverse findings in laboratory animals and humans and can negatively impact drug development. This review will discuss normal colon homeostasis with examples, where applicable, of xenobiotics that disrupt normal function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-81
Number of pages15
JournalToxicologic pathology
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Keywords

  • colon
  • colonic homeostasis
  • drug
  • intestinal motility.
  • xenobiotic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology

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