Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 (ADH1) is caused by germline gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and may lead to symptomatic hypocalcemia, in appropriately low serum PTH con centrations and hyper calciuria. Negative all osteric Ca SR modulators, known as calcilytics, have been shown to normalize the gain-of-function associated with ADH-causing CaSR mutations in vitro and represent a potential targeted therapy for ADH1. However, the effectiveness of calcilytic drugs for the treatment of ADH1-associated hypocalcemia remains to be established. We have investigated NPS 2143, a calcilytic compound, for the treatment of ADH1 by in vitro and in vivo studies involving a mouse model, known as Nuf, which harbors a gain-of-function CaSR mutation, Leu723Gln. Wild-type (Leu723) and Nuf mutant (Gln723) CaSRs were expressed in HEK293 cells, and the effect of NPS 2143 on their intracellular calcium responses was determinedbyflow cytometry. NPS 2143 wasalso administered as a sing le ip bolus to wild-type and Nuf mice and plasma concentrations of calcium and PTH, and urinary calcium excretion measured. In vitro administration of NPS 2143 decreased the intracellular calcium responses of HEK293 cells expressing the mutant Gln723 CaSR in a dose-dependent manner, thereby rectifying the gain-of-function associated with the Nuf mouse CaSR mutation. Intraperitoneal injection of NPS 2143 in Nuf mice led to significant increases in plasma calcium and PTH without elevating urinary calcium excretion. These studies of amousemodel withanactivating CaSR mutation demonstrate NPS2143 to normalize the gain-of-function causing ADH1 and improve the hypocalcemia associated with this disorder.
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