TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory

R. Atkins, W. Benbow, D. Berley, E. Blaufuss, J. Bussons, D. G. Coyne, T. DeYoung, B. L. Dingus, D. E. Dorfan, R. W. Ellsworth, L. Fleysher, Roman Fleysher, G. Gisler, M. M. Gonzalez, J. A. Goodman, T. J. Haines, E. Hays, C. M. Hoffman, L. A. Kelley, C. P. LansdellJ. T. Linnemann, J. E. McEnery, R. S. Miller, A. I. Mincer, M. F. Morales, P. Nemethy, D. Noyes, J. M. Ryan, F. W. Samuelson, A. Shoup, G. Sinnis, A. J. Smith, G. W. Sullivan, D. A. Williams, S. Westerhoff, M. E. Wilson, X. W. Xu, G. B. Yodh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

86 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Milagro is a water Cerenkov extensive air shower array that continuously monitors the entire overhead sky in the TeV energy band. The results from an analysis of ∼3 yr of data (2000 December-2003 November) are presented. The data have been searched for steady point sources of TeV gamma rays between declinations of 1°.1 and 80°. Two sources are detected, the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Mrk 421. For the remainder of the northern hemisphere, we set 95% confidence level (CL) upper limits between 275 and 600 mcrab (4.8 × 10-12 to 10.5 × 10-12 cm-2 s -1) above 1 TeV for source declinations between 5° and 70°. Since the sensitivity of Milagro depends on the spectrum of the source at the top of the atmosphere, the dependence of the limits on the spectrum of a candidate source is presented. Because high-energy gamma rays from extragalactic sources are absorbed by interactions with the extragalactic background light, the dependence of the flux limits on the redshift of a candidate source are given. The upper limits presented here are over an order of magnitude more stringent than previously published limits from TeV gamma-ray all-sky surveys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)680-685
Number of pages6
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume608
Issue number2 I
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Northern Hemisphere
sky
observatories
observatory
gamma rays
point source
energy
crab
declination
atmosphere
air
Crab nebula
active galaxies
cosmic ray showers
water
point sources
energy bands
confidence
atmospheres
sensitivity

Keywords

  • Galaxies: active
  • Gamma rays: observations
  • Surveys

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Atkins, R., Benbow, W., Berley, D., Blaufuss, E., Bussons, J., Coyne, D. G., ... Yodh, G. B. (2004). TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. Astrophysical Journal, 608(2 I), 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880

TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. / Atkins, R.; Benbow, W.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Bussons, J.; Coyne, D. G.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Dorfan, D. E.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fleysher, L.; Fleysher, Roman; Gisler, G.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Haines, T. J.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Kelley, L. A.; Lansdell, C. P.; Linnemann, J. T.; McEnery, J. E.; Miller, R. S.; Mincer, A. I.; Morales, M. F.; Nemethy, P.; Noyes, D.; Ryan, J. M.; Samuelson, F. W.; Shoup, A.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Sullivan, G. W.; Williams, D. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wilson, M. E.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G. B.

In: Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 608, No. 2 I, 20.06.2004, p. 680-685.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Atkins, R, Benbow, W, Berley, D, Blaufuss, E, Bussons, J, Coyne, DG, DeYoung, T, Dingus, BL, Dorfan, DE, Ellsworth, RW, Fleysher, L, Fleysher, R, Gisler, G, Gonzalez, MM, Goodman, JA, Haines, TJ, Hays, E, Hoffman, CM, Kelley, LA, Lansdell, CP, Linnemann, JT, McEnery, JE, Miller, RS, Mincer, AI, Morales, MF, Nemethy, P, Noyes, D, Ryan, JM, Samuelson, FW, Shoup, A, Sinnis, G, Smith, AJ, Sullivan, GW, Williams, DA, Westerhoff, S, Wilson, ME, Xu, XW & Yodh, GB 2004, 'TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory', Astrophysical Journal, vol. 608, no. 2 I, pp. 680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880
Atkins R, Benbow W, Berley D, Blaufuss E, Bussons J, Coyne DG et al. TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. Astrophysical Journal. 2004 Jun 20;608(2 I):680-685. https://doi.org/10.1086/420880
Atkins, R. ; Benbow, W. ; Berley, D. ; Blaufuss, E. ; Bussons, J. ; Coyne, D. G. ; DeYoung, T. ; Dingus, B. L. ; Dorfan, D. E. ; Ellsworth, R. W. ; Fleysher, L. ; Fleysher, Roman ; Gisler, G. ; Gonzalez, M. M. ; Goodman, J. A. ; Haines, T. J. ; Hays, E. ; Hoffman, C. M. ; Kelley, L. A. ; Lansdell, C. P. ; Linnemann, J. T. ; McEnery, J. E. ; Miller, R. S. ; Mincer, A. I. ; Morales, M. F. ; Nemethy, P. ; Noyes, D. ; Ryan, J. M. ; Samuelson, F. W. ; Shoup, A. ; Sinnis, G. ; Smith, A. J. ; Sullivan, G. W. ; Williams, D. A. ; Westerhoff, S. ; Wilson, M. E. ; Xu, X. W. ; Yodh, G. B. / TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory. In: Astrophysical Journal. 2004 ; Vol. 608, No. 2 I. pp. 680-685.
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abstract = "Milagro is a water Cerenkov extensive air shower array that continuously monitors the entire overhead sky in the TeV energy band. The results from an analysis of ∼3 yr of data (2000 December-2003 November) are presented. The data have been searched for steady point sources of TeV gamma rays between declinations of 1°.1 and 80°. Two sources are detected, the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Mrk 421. For the remainder of the northern hemisphere, we set 95{\%} confidence level (CL) upper limits between 275 and 600 mcrab (4.8 × 10-12 to 10.5 × 10-12 cm-2 s -1) above 1 TeV for source declinations between 5° and 70°. Since the sensitivity of Milagro depends on the spectrum of the source at the top of the atmosphere, the dependence of the limits on the spectrum of a candidate source is presented. Because high-energy gamma rays from extragalactic sources are absorbed by interactions with the extragalactic background light, the dependence of the flux limits on the redshift of a candidate source are given. The upper limits presented here are over an order of magnitude more stringent than previously published limits from TeV gamma-ray all-sky surveys.",
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T1 - TeV gamma-ray survey of the northern hemisphere sky using the Milagro observatory

AU - Atkins, R.

AU - Benbow, W.

AU - Berley, D.

AU - Blaufuss, E.

AU - Bussons, J.

AU - Coyne, D. G.

AU - DeYoung, T.

AU - Dingus, B. L.

AU - Dorfan, D. E.

AU - Ellsworth, R. W.

AU - Fleysher, L.

AU - Fleysher, Roman

AU - Gisler, G.

AU - Gonzalez, M. M.

AU - Goodman, J. A.

AU - Haines, T. J.

AU - Hays, E.

AU - Hoffman, C. M.

AU - Kelley, L. A.

AU - Lansdell, C. P.

AU - Linnemann, J. T.

AU - McEnery, J. E.

AU - Miller, R. S.

AU - Mincer, A. I.

AU - Morales, M. F.

AU - Nemethy, P.

AU - Noyes, D.

AU - Ryan, J. M.

AU - Samuelson, F. W.

AU - Shoup, A.

AU - Sinnis, G.

AU - Smith, A. J.

AU - Sullivan, G. W.

AU - Williams, D. A.

AU - Westerhoff, S.

AU - Wilson, M. E.

AU - Xu, X. W.

AU - Yodh, G. B.

PY - 2004/6/20

Y1 - 2004/6/20

N2 - Milagro is a water Cerenkov extensive air shower array that continuously monitors the entire overhead sky in the TeV energy band. The results from an analysis of ∼3 yr of data (2000 December-2003 November) are presented. The data have been searched for steady point sources of TeV gamma rays between declinations of 1°.1 and 80°. Two sources are detected, the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Mrk 421. For the remainder of the northern hemisphere, we set 95% confidence level (CL) upper limits between 275 and 600 mcrab (4.8 × 10-12 to 10.5 × 10-12 cm-2 s -1) above 1 TeV for source declinations between 5° and 70°. Since the sensitivity of Milagro depends on the spectrum of the source at the top of the atmosphere, the dependence of the limits on the spectrum of a candidate source is presented. Because high-energy gamma rays from extragalactic sources are absorbed by interactions with the extragalactic background light, the dependence of the flux limits on the redshift of a candidate source are given. The upper limits presented here are over an order of magnitude more stringent than previously published limits from TeV gamma-ray all-sky surveys.

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KW - Galaxies: active

KW - Gamma rays: observations

KW - Surveys

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