T cell response and persistence of the microsporidia

Kaya Ghosh, Louis M. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The microsporidia are a diverse phylum of obligate intracellular parasites related to the fungi that cause significant and sometimes life-threatening disease in immune-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and organ transplant patients. More recently, their role in causing pathology in immune-competent populations has also been appreciated. Interestingly, in several instances, the microsporidia have been shown to persist in their hosts long term, causing at opposite ends of the spectrum either an intractable chronic diarrhea and wasting in patients with advanced-stage AIDS or asymptomatic shedding of spores in healthy populations. Much remains to be studied regarding the immune response to these pathogens, but it seems clear that CD8+ T cells are essential in clearing infection. However, in the infection models examined thus far, the role for CD4+ T cells is unclear at best. Here, we discuss the possible reasons and ramifications of what may be a weak primary CD4+ T cell response against Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Given the central role of the CD4+ T cell in other models of adaptive immunity, a better appreciation of its role in responding to microsporidia may provide insight into the survival strategies of these pathogens, which allow them to persist in hosts of varied immune status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)748-760
Number of pages13
JournalFEMS Microbiology Reviews
Volume36
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2012

Fingerprint

Microsporidia
T-Lymphocytes
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Immune System Diseases
Adaptive Immunity
Infection
Spores
Population
Diarrhea
Parasites
Fungi
Pathology
Transplants
Survival

Keywords

  • CD8+ T cell
  • Cell-mediated immunity
  • Cytotoxic T cell
  • Encephalitozoon
  • Microsporidia
  • Persistence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

T cell response and persistence of the microsporidia. / Ghosh, Kaya; Weiss, Louis M.

In: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, Vol. 36, No. 3, 05.2012, p. 748-760.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{7fcb82070ceb4140bb33b87b035d7437,
title = "T cell response and persistence of the microsporidia",
abstract = "The microsporidia are a diverse phylum of obligate intracellular parasites related to the fungi that cause significant and sometimes life-threatening disease in immune-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and organ transplant patients. More recently, their role in causing pathology in immune-competent populations has also been appreciated. Interestingly, in several instances, the microsporidia have been shown to persist in their hosts long term, causing at opposite ends of the spectrum either an intractable chronic diarrhea and wasting in patients with advanced-stage AIDS or asymptomatic shedding of spores in healthy populations. Much remains to be studied regarding the immune response to these pathogens, but it seems clear that CD8+ T cells are essential in clearing infection. However, in the infection models examined thus far, the role for CD4+ T cells is unclear at best. Here, we discuss the possible reasons and ramifications of what may be a weak primary CD4+ T cell response against Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Given the central role of the CD4+ T cell in other models of adaptive immunity, a better appreciation of its role in responding to microsporidia may provide insight into the survival strategies of these pathogens, which allow them to persist in hosts of varied immune status.",
keywords = "CD8+ T cell, Cell-mediated immunity, Cytotoxic T cell, Encephalitozoon, Microsporidia, Persistence",
author = "Kaya Ghosh and Weiss, {Louis M.}",
year = "2012",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00318.x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "36",
pages = "748--760",
journal = "FEMS Microbiology Reviews",
issn = "0168-6445",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - T cell response and persistence of the microsporidia

AU - Ghosh, Kaya

AU - Weiss, Louis M.

PY - 2012/5

Y1 - 2012/5

N2 - The microsporidia are a diverse phylum of obligate intracellular parasites related to the fungi that cause significant and sometimes life-threatening disease in immune-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and organ transplant patients. More recently, their role in causing pathology in immune-competent populations has also been appreciated. Interestingly, in several instances, the microsporidia have been shown to persist in their hosts long term, causing at opposite ends of the spectrum either an intractable chronic diarrhea and wasting in patients with advanced-stage AIDS or asymptomatic shedding of spores in healthy populations. Much remains to be studied regarding the immune response to these pathogens, but it seems clear that CD8+ T cells are essential in clearing infection. However, in the infection models examined thus far, the role for CD4+ T cells is unclear at best. Here, we discuss the possible reasons and ramifications of what may be a weak primary CD4+ T cell response against Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Given the central role of the CD4+ T cell in other models of adaptive immunity, a better appreciation of its role in responding to microsporidia may provide insight into the survival strategies of these pathogens, which allow them to persist in hosts of varied immune status.

AB - The microsporidia are a diverse phylum of obligate intracellular parasites related to the fungi that cause significant and sometimes life-threatening disease in immune-compromised hosts, such as AIDS and organ transplant patients. More recently, their role in causing pathology in immune-competent populations has also been appreciated. Interestingly, in several instances, the microsporidia have been shown to persist in their hosts long term, causing at opposite ends of the spectrum either an intractable chronic diarrhea and wasting in patients with advanced-stage AIDS or asymptomatic shedding of spores in healthy populations. Much remains to be studied regarding the immune response to these pathogens, but it seems clear that CD8+ T cells are essential in clearing infection. However, in the infection models examined thus far, the role for CD4+ T cells is unclear at best. Here, we discuss the possible reasons and ramifications of what may be a weak primary CD4+ T cell response against Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Given the central role of the CD4+ T cell in other models of adaptive immunity, a better appreciation of its role in responding to microsporidia may provide insight into the survival strategies of these pathogens, which allow them to persist in hosts of varied immune status.

KW - CD8+ T cell

KW - Cell-mediated immunity

KW - Cytotoxic T cell

KW - Encephalitozoon

KW - Microsporidia

KW - Persistence

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84859434019&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84859434019&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00318.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00318.x

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 748

EP - 760

JO - FEMS Microbiology Reviews

JF - FEMS Microbiology Reviews

SN - 0168-6445

IS - 3

ER -