Purpose: To investigate if there exists a difference in breathing patterns between patients treated with SBRT and IMRT using RQA and DC (using K2: correlation entropy and D2: correlation dimension) measures. Methods: 9 patients treated with SBRT and 8 treated with IMRT were scanned with 4D CT and the breathing patterns were acquired. One of the SBRT patients was scanned with and without meditation. Each breathing signal consisted of a scalar time series and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was utilized to determine the following measures: Periodicity of the system as percentage of recurrence points (%RR), determinism (DET), maximum diagonal line length (L_max) whose inverse the divergence (DIV) is measure for how fast trajectories diverge from each other, the average diagonal line length (L) that can be interpreted as the mean prediction time of the signal, and the entropy (ENTR) a measure of information complexity. In addition the invariant measures of K2 and D2 were also estimated. A locally nonlinear forecast was applied to predict future breathing signals of N time step ahead for the patient with and without meditation. Results: Our results showed %RR has significant correlation with L_max and has inverse correlation with DIV. DET has significant correlation with Lmax, L, ENTR and DIV. Independent t test suggests there is no difference between the SBRT and IMRT groups in terms of the RQA measures and K2. Patient that had undergone meditation showed improvement in %RR, L_max, DIV, K2 and had an estimated correlation dimension of 1.7. Prediction showed similar results for one and three time step ahead but meditation one had better prediction horizon when time step was higher. Conclusion: RQA is a powerful tool that allows one to analyze the dynamic nature of breathing pattern. No significant difference was found in the dynamical complexity of SBRT and IMRT patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging