Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers

Timothy Morse, Charles Dillon, Nicholas Warren, Charles B. Hall, Deborah Hovey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and currently the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. However, diisocyanate asthma is difficult to diagnose and exposure and host risk factors are unclear. Auto body shops, one of the most common hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposure settings, are particularly difficult to study due to their small size and episodic exposures. Surveillance studies of such workers are limited. Objectives: We have initiated a cross-sectional field epidemiologic study, Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), to characterize the effects of diisocyanate exposures on actively employed auto body shop workers. Methods and Results: We present here questionnaire, physiologic, immunologic, and exposure data on 75 subjects enrolled in the study. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30% of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34% of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. More long-term follow-up of this cohort should clarify the significance of these HDI-specific immunologic responses, physiologic changes, and symptoms. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-597
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Industrial Medicine
Volume39
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Methacholine Chloride
1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate
Asthma
Lymphocytes
Occupational Asthma
Spirometry
Developed Countries
Dyspnea
Immunoglobulin E
Epidemiologic Studies
Thorax
Immunoglobulin G
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Asthma
  • Diisocyanates
  • Hexamethylene diisocyanate
  • Lymphocyte proliferation
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers. / Morse, Timothy; Dillon, Charles; Warren, Nicholas; Hall, Charles B.; Hovey, Deborah.

In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2001, p. 587-597.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Morse, Timothy ; Dillon, Charles ; Warren, Nicholas ; Hall, Charles B. ; Hovey, Deborah. / Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers. In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2001 ; Vol. 39, No. 6. pp. 587-597.
@article{66de51da07834178a0faa667fd9e6618,
title = "Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers",
abstract = "Background: Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and currently the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. However, diisocyanate asthma is difficult to diagnose and exposure and host risk factors are unclear. Auto body shops, one of the most common hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposure settings, are particularly difficult to study due to their small size and episodic exposures. Surveillance studies of such workers are limited. Objectives: We have initiated a cross-sectional field epidemiologic study, Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), to characterize the effects of diisocyanate exposures on actively employed auto body shop workers. Methods and Results: We present here questionnaire, physiologic, immunologic, and exposure data on 75 subjects enrolled in the study. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30{\%} of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34{\%} of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. More long-term follow-up of this cohort should clarify the significance of these HDI-specific immunologic responses, physiologic changes, and symptoms. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers.",
keywords = "Asthma, Diisocyanates, Hexamethylene diisocyanate, Lymphocyte proliferation, Surveillance",
author = "Timothy Morse and Charles Dillon and Nicholas Warren and Hall, {Charles B.} and Deborah Hovey",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1002/ajim.1058",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
pages = "587--597",
journal = "American Journal of Industrial Medicine",
issn = "0271-3586",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers

AU - Morse, Timothy

AU - Dillon, Charles

AU - Warren, Nicholas

AU - Hall, Charles B.

AU - Hovey, Deborah

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Background: Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and currently the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. However, diisocyanate asthma is difficult to diagnose and exposure and host risk factors are unclear. Auto body shops, one of the most common hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposure settings, are particularly difficult to study due to their small size and episodic exposures. Surveillance studies of such workers are limited. Objectives: We have initiated a cross-sectional field epidemiologic study, Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), to characterize the effects of diisocyanate exposures on actively employed auto body shop workers. Methods and Results: We present here questionnaire, physiologic, immunologic, and exposure data on 75 subjects enrolled in the study. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30% of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34% of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. More long-term follow-up of this cohort should clarify the significance of these HDI-specific immunologic responses, physiologic changes, and symptoms. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers.

AB - Background: Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and currently the most commonly identified cause of occupational asthma in industrialized countries. However, diisocyanate asthma is difficult to diagnose and exposure and host risk factors are unclear. Auto body shops, one of the most common hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposure settings, are particularly difficult to study due to their small size and episodic exposures. Surveillance studies of such workers are limited. Objectives: We have initiated a cross-sectional field epidemiologic study, Survey of Painters and Repairers of Auto bodies by Yale (SPRAY), to characterize the effects of diisocyanate exposures on actively employed auto body shop workers. Methods and Results: We present here questionnaire, physiologic, immunologic, and exposure data on 75 subjects enrolled in the study. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30% of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34% of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. More long-term follow-up of this cohort should clarify the significance of these HDI-specific immunologic responses, physiologic changes, and symptoms. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers.

KW - Asthma

KW - Diisocyanates

KW - Hexamethylene diisocyanate

KW - Lymphocyte proliferation

KW - Surveillance

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034970819&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034970819&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/ajim.1058

DO - 10.1002/ajim.1058

M3 - Article

C2 - 11385643

AN - SCOPUS:0034970819

VL - 39

SP - 587

EP - 597

JO - American Journal of Industrial Medicine

JF - American Journal of Industrial Medicine

SN - 0271-3586

IS - 6

ER -