Sources of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and Methods to Optimize Yields for Clinical Cell Therapy

Sandhya R. Panch, James Szymanski, Bipin N. Savani, David F. Stroncek

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Bone marrow (BM) aspirates, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood (UCB) have developed as graft sources for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell transplantation and other cellular therapeutics. Individualized techniques are necessary to enhance graft HSPC yields and cell quality from each graft source. BM aspirates yield adequate CD34+ cells but can result in relative delays in engraftment. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)–primed BM HSPCs may facilitate faster engraftment while minimizing graft-versus-host disease in certain patient subsets. The levels of circulating HSPCs are enhanced using mobilizing agents, such as G-CSF and/or plerixafor, which act via the stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 axis. Alternate niche pathway mediators, including very late antigen-4/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, parathyroid hormone, and coagulation cascade intermediates, may offer promising alternatives for graft enhancement. UCB grafts have been expanded ex vivo with cytokines, notch-ligand, or mesenchymal stromal cells, and most studies demonstrated greater quantities of CD34+ cells ex vivo and improved short-term engraftment. No significant changes were observed in long-term repopulating potential or in patient survival. Early phase clinical trials using nicotinamide and StemReginin1 may offer improved short- and long-term repopulating ability. Breakthroughs in genome editing and stem cell reprogramming technologies may hasten the generation of pooled, third-party HSPC grafts. This review elucidates past, present, and potential future approaches to HSPC graft optimization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1241-1249
Number of pages9
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Ex vivo expansion
  • G-CSF
  • Hematopoietic stem cells
  • Plerixafor
  • Stem cell mobilization
  • Umbilical cord blood

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation


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