Single-Dilution COVID-19 Antibody Test with Qualitative and Quantitative Readouts

Robert H. Bortz, Catalina Florez, Ethan Laudermilch, Ariel S. Wirchnianski, Gorka Lasso, Ryan J. Malonis, George I. Georgiev, Olivia Vergnolle, Natalia G. Herrera, Nicholas C. Morano, Sean T. Campbell, Erika P. Orner, Amanda Mengotto, M. Eugenia Dieterle, J. Maximilian Fels, Denise Haslwanter, Rohit K. Jangra, Alev Celikgil, Duncan Kimmel, James H. LeeMargarette C. Mariano, Antonio Nakouzi, Jose Quiroz, Johanna Rivera, Wendy A. Szymczak, Karen Tong, Jason Barnhill, Mattias N.E. Forsell, Clas Ahlm, Daniel T. Stein, Liise Anne Pirofski, D. Yitzchak Goldstein, Scott J. Garforth, Steven C. Almo, Johanna P. Daily, Michael B. Prystowsky, James D. Faix, Amy S. Fox, Louis M. Weiss, Jonathan R. Lai, Kartik Chandran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to place an immense burden on societies and health care systems. A key component of COVID-19 control efforts is serological testing to determine the community prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and quantify individual immune responses to prior SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Here, we describe a laboratory-developed antibody test that uses readily available research-grade reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 exposure in patient blood samples with high sensitivity and specificity. We further show that this sensitive test affords the estimation of viral spike-specific IgG titers from a single sample measurement, thereby providing a simple and scalable method to measure the strength of an individual’s immune response. The accuracy, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of this test make it an excellent option for clinical deployment in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Serological surveillance has become an important public health tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. Detection of protective antibodies and seroconversion after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination can help guide patient care plans and public health policies. Serology tests can detect antibodies against past infections; consequently, they can help overcome the shortcomings of molecular tests, which can detect only active infections. This is important, especially when considering that many COVID-19 patients are asymptomatic. In this study, we describe an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative and quantitative serology test developed to measure IgG and IgA antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. The test can be deployed using commonly available laboratory reagents and equipment and displays high specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IgG titers in patient samples can be estimated from a single measurement, enabling the assay’s use in high-throughput clinical environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)201-202
Number of pages2
JournalmSphere
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • IgA
  • IgG
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • laboratory diagnostic test
  • quantitative test
  • serology
  • spike protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

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