Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and leukemic stem cells (LSCs) utilize many of the same signaling pathways for their maintenance and survival. In this review, we will focus on several signaling pathways whose roles have been extensively studied in both HSCs and LSCs. Our main focus will be on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and several of its regulators and downstream effectors. We will also discuss several other signaling pathways of particular importance in LSCs, including the WNT/Î²-catenin pathway, the NOTCH pathway, and the TGFÎ² pathway. For each of these pathways, we will emphasize differences in how these pathways operate in LSCs, compared to their function in HSCs, to highlight opportunities for the specific therapeutic targeting of LSCs. We will also highlight areas of crosstalk between multiple signaling pathways that may affect LSC function.