To delineate the mechanistic basis for the epidemiological association between methamphetamine use and accelerated progression to AIDS, we evaluated the direct in vitro and in vivo effects of methamphetamine on HIV-1 replication. Methamphetamine administration significantly increased HIV-1 production by both HIV-infected monocytes and CD4 T lymphocytes in vitro. In addition, in vivo methamphetamine treatment increased HIV production and viremia in mice transgenic for a replication-competent HIV provirus and human cyclinT1. Methamphetamine activated transcription of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) regulatory region, was associated with nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Our results provide further insights into the mechanisms by which methamphetamine accelerates disease course in HIV-infected individuals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases