Purpose: Shared decision making (SDM) has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and outcomes in both medical and surgical specialties, but its role in ophthalmology has not been systematically examined. Using a scoping review of the literature, the purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics, implementation, and outcomes of SDM in ophthalmology. Design: Scoping review of the literature. Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through August 2021 for SDM in ophthalmology. The resulting 1602 studies were screened by 2 independent reviewers with 57 full-text articles examined for inclusion of an ophthalmologic diagnosis, as well as discussion of SDM or patient decision aids. Nineteen studies were eligible and qualitatively coded for 11 predetermined codes, which included patient outcomes, patient and physician requests for SDM, and methods of implementation. Results: Of 19 included studies, all emphasized the value of SDM for ophthalmology and 2 studies reported improved patient outcomes. The most commonly examined topics were chronic ophthalmic diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma. Limitations to SDM implementation were also universally discussed, including patients’ lack of disease knowledge, communication barriers, and time restrictions. Although patient decision aids are an effective tool to mitigate these limitations, these have only been established for the subjects of cataracts and glaucoma. Conclusion: SDM is a methodology for patient-centered care that is regarded as a potentially useful tool in the field of ophthalmology. However, significant barriers exist to its effective implementation. Evidence-based research on if and how these barriers should be attenuated, as well as the development of additional patient decision aids for different ophthalmic diseases, are needed.
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