Female sex confers renoprotection in chronic progressive kidney disease. It is less well recognized that sexual dimorphism also is evident in the development of ischemic and nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI). Animal studies consistently have shown that female sex protects against the development of renal injury in experimental models of ischemic AKI. However, the consensus opinion is that in human beings, female sex is an independent risk factor for AKI. Based on a systematic review of experimental and clinical literature, we present data to support the conclusion that, contrary to consensus opinion, it is male sex, not female sex, that is associated with the development of AKI.
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