Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial

Jane Gwiazda, Li Deng, Ruth Manny, Thomas T. Norton, Thomas Norton, Kenneth Grice, Christine Fortunato, Cara Weber, Alexandra Beale, David Kern, Sally Bittinger, Debanjali Ghosh, Rosanna Pacella, Leslie Hyman, M. Cristina Leske, Mohamed Hussein, Li Ming Dong, Melissa Fazzari, Wei Hou, Elinor SchoenfeldLynette Dias, Rachel Harrison, Wen Zhu, Qinghua Zhang, Ying Wang, Ahmed Yassin, Elissa Schnall, Cristi Rau, Jennifer Thomas, Marcela Wasserman, Yi ju Chen, Sakeena Ahmed, Leanne Merill, Lauretta Passanant, Maria Rodriguez, Allison Schmertz, Ann Park, Phyllis Neuschwender, Geeta Veeraraghavan, Angela Santomarco, Laura Sisti, Lydia Seib, Donald Everett, Wendy Marsh-Tootle, Katherine Weise, Marcela Frazier, Catherine Baldwin, Carey Dillard, Kristine Becker, James Raley, Angela Rawden, Nicholas Harris, Trana Mars, Robert Rutstein, Daniel Kurtz, Erik Weissberg, Bruce Moore, Elise Harb, Robert Owens, Sheila Martin, Joanne Bolden, Justin Smith, David Kern, Sally Bittinger, Debanjali Ghosh, Benny Jaramillo, Stacy Hamlett, Laura Vasilakos, Sarah Gladstone, Chris Owens, Patricia Kowalski, Jennifer Hazelwood, Ruth Manny, Connie Crossnoe, Karen Fern, Heather Anderson, Sheila Deatherage, Charles Dudonis, Sally Henry, Jennifer McLeod, Mamie Batres, Julio Quiralte, Giselle Garza, Gabynely Solis, Joan Do, Andy Ketcham, Mitchell Scheiman, Kathleen Zinzer, Karen Pollack, Timothy Lancaster, Theresa Elliott, Mark Bernhardt, Daniel Ferrara, Jeff Miles, Scott Wilkins, Renee Wilkins, Jennifer Nicole Lynch, Dawn D'Antonio, Lindsey Lear, Sandy Dang, Charles Sporer, Mary Jameson, Abby Grossman, Mariel Torres, Heather Jones, Melissa Madigan-Carr, Theresa Sanogo, Jo Ann Bailey, Robert Hardy, Donald Mutti, Richard Stone, Carol Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose. To investigate monthly and seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Methods. An ethnically diverse cohort of 469 myopic 6- to <12 year-old children was randomized to single vision or progressive addition lenses and followed for 3 years with 98.5% retention. Progression of myopia was measured semiannually by noncycloplegic autorefraction (Nidek ARK 700A) and annually by cycloplegic autorefraction, with the former measurements used in these analyses. The semiannual progression rate was calculated as (change in spherical equivalent refraction between two consecutive semiannual visits/number of days between the two visits) times 182.5. Months were categorized as the midpoint between two visit dates. Seasons were classified as winter (October through March) or summer (April through September). The seasonal difference was tested using a linear mixed model adjusting for demographic variables (age, sex, ethnicity), baseline refraction, and treatment group. Results. Data from 358 children (mean [±SD] age = 9.84 ± 1.27 years; mean myopia = -2.54 ± 0.84 diopters [D]) met the criteria for these analyses. Myopia progression varied systematically by month; it was slower in April through September than in the other months. Mean progression in winter was -0.35 ± 0.34 D and in summer was -0.14 ± 0.32 D, a statistically significant difference (0.21 D, P < 0.0001). The same seasonal pattern was found by age, sex, ethnicity (except in the small sample of Asians), lens type, and clinical center. Conclusions. The slower progression of myopia found in summer is likely related to children's spending more time outdoors and fewer hours in school. The data have clinical implications regarding the time of year and the frequency with which myopic children have eye examinations and the need for precise timing of visits in clinical trials testing new myopia treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)752-758
Number of pages7
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Volume55
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Myopia
Lenses
Mydriatics
Linear Models
Demography
Clinical Trials
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Children's vision
  • Myopia
  • Refractive error

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

Cite this

Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. / Gwiazda, Jane; Deng, Li; Manny, Ruth; Norton, Thomas T.; Norton, Thomas; Grice, Kenneth; Fortunato, Christine; Weber, Cara; Beale, Alexandra; Kern, David; Bittinger, Sally; Ghosh, Debanjali; Pacella, Rosanna; Hyman, Leslie; Leske, M. Cristina; Hussein, Mohamed; Dong, Li Ming; Fazzari, Melissa; Hou, Wei; Schoenfeld, Elinor; Dias, Lynette; Harrison, Rachel; Zhu, Wen; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Ying; Yassin, Ahmed; Schnall, Elissa; Rau, Cristi; Thomas, Jennifer; Wasserman, Marcela; Chen, Yi ju; Ahmed, Sakeena; Merill, Leanne; Passanant, Lauretta; Rodriguez, Maria; Schmertz, Allison; Park, Ann; Neuschwender, Phyllis; Veeraraghavan, Geeta; Santomarco, Angela; Sisti, Laura; Seib, Lydia; Everett, Donald; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy; Weise, Katherine; Frazier, Marcela; Baldwin, Catherine; Dillard, Carey; Becker, Kristine; Raley, James; Rawden, Angela; Harris, Nicholas; Mars, Trana; Rutstein, Robert; Kurtz, Daniel; Weissberg, Erik; Moore, Bruce; Harb, Elise; Owens, Robert; Martin, Sheila; Bolden, Joanne; Smith, Justin; Kern, David; Bittinger, Sally; Ghosh, Debanjali; Jaramillo, Benny; Hamlett, Stacy; Vasilakos, Laura; Gladstone, Sarah; Owens, Chris; Kowalski, Patricia; Hazelwood, Jennifer; Manny, Ruth; Crossnoe, Connie; Fern, Karen; Anderson, Heather; Deatherage, Sheila; Dudonis, Charles; Henry, Sally; McLeod, Jennifer; Batres, Mamie; Quiralte, Julio; Garza, Giselle; Solis, Gabynely; Do, Joan; Ketcham, Andy; Scheiman, Mitchell; Zinzer, Kathleen; Pollack, Karen; Lancaster, Timothy; Elliott, Theresa; Bernhardt, Mark; Ferrara, Daniel; Miles, Jeff; Wilkins, Scott; Wilkins, Renee; Lynch, Jennifer Nicole; D'Antonio, Dawn; Lear, Lindsey; Dang, Sandy; Sporer, Charles; Jameson, Mary; Grossman, Abby; Torres, Mariel; Jones, Heather; Madigan-Carr, Melissa; Sanogo, Theresa; Bailey, Jo Ann; Hardy, Robert; Mutti, Donald; Stone, Richard; Taylor, Carol.

In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2014, p. 752-758.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gwiazda, J, Deng, L, Manny, R, Norton, TT, Norton, T, Grice, K, Fortunato, C, Weber, C, Beale, A, Kern, D, Bittinger, S, Ghosh, D, Pacella, R, Hyman, L, Leske, MC, Hussein, M, Dong, LM, Fazzari, M, Hou, W, Schoenfeld, E, Dias, L, Harrison, R, Zhu, W, Zhang, Q, Wang, Y, Yassin, A, Schnall, E, Rau, C, Thomas, J, Wasserman, M, Chen, YJ, Ahmed, S, Merill, L, Passanant, L, Rodriguez, M, Schmertz, A, Park, A, Neuschwender, P, Veeraraghavan, G, Santomarco, A, Sisti, L, Seib, L, Everett, D, Marsh-Tootle, W, Weise, K, Frazier, M, Baldwin, C, Dillard, C, Becker, K, Raley, J, Rawden, A, Harris, N, Mars, T, Rutstein, R, Kurtz, D, Weissberg, E, Moore, B, Harb, E, Owens, R, Martin, S, Bolden, J, Smith, J, Kern, D, Bittinger, S, Ghosh, D, Jaramillo, B, Hamlett, S, Vasilakos, L, Gladstone, S, Owens, C, Kowalski, P, Hazelwood, J, Manny, R, Crossnoe, C, Fern, K, Anderson, H, Deatherage, S, Dudonis, C, Henry, S, McLeod, J, Batres, M, Quiralte, J, Garza, G, Solis, G, Do, J, Ketcham, A, Scheiman, M, Zinzer, K, Pollack, K, Lancaster, T, Elliott, T, Bernhardt, M, Ferrara, D, Miles, J, Wilkins, S, Wilkins, R, Lynch, JN, D'Antonio, D, Lear, L, Dang, S, Sporer, C, Jameson, M, Grossman, A, Torres, M, Jones, H, Madigan-Carr, M, Sanogo, T, Bailey, JA, Hardy, R, Mutti, D, Stone, R & Taylor, C 2014, 'Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 752-758. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.13-13029
Gwiazda, Jane ; Deng, Li ; Manny, Ruth ; Norton, Thomas T. ; Norton, Thomas ; Grice, Kenneth ; Fortunato, Christine ; Weber, Cara ; Beale, Alexandra ; Kern, David ; Bittinger, Sally ; Ghosh, Debanjali ; Pacella, Rosanna ; Hyman, Leslie ; Leske, M. Cristina ; Hussein, Mohamed ; Dong, Li Ming ; Fazzari, Melissa ; Hou, Wei ; Schoenfeld, Elinor ; Dias, Lynette ; Harrison, Rachel ; Zhu, Wen ; Zhang, Qinghua ; Wang, Ying ; Yassin, Ahmed ; Schnall, Elissa ; Rau, Cristi ; Thomas, Jennifer ; Wasserman, Marcela ; Chen, Yi ju ; Ahmed, Sakeena ; Merill, Leanne ; Passanant, Lauretta ; Rodriguez, Maria ; Schmertz, Allison ; Park, Ann ; Neuschwender, Phyllis ; Veeraraghavan, Geeta ; Santomarco, Angela ; Sisti, Laura ; Seib, Lydia ; Everett, Donald ; Marsh-Tootle, Wendy ; Weise, Katherine ; Frazier, Marcela ; Baldwin, Catherine ; Dillard, Carey ; Becker, Kristine ; Raley, James ; Rawden, Angela ; Harris, Nicholas ; Mars, Trana ; Rutstein, Robert ; Kurtz, Daniel ; Weissberg, Erik ; Moore, Bruce ; Harb, Elise ; Owens, Robert ; Martin, Sheila ; Bolden, Joanne ; Smith, Justin ; Kern, David ; Bittinger, Sally ; Ghosh, Debanjali ; Jaramillo, Benny ; Hamlett, Stacy ; Vasilakos, Laura ; Gladstone, Sarah ; Owens, Chris ; Kowalski, Patricia ; Hazelwood, Jennifer ; Manny, Ruth ; Crossnoe, Connie ; Fern, Karen ; Anderson, Heather ; Deatherage, Sheila ; Dudonis, Charles ; Henry, Sally ; McLeod, Jennifer ; Batres, Mamie ; Quiralte, Julio ; Garza, Giselle ; Solis, Gabynely ; Do, Joan ; Ketcham, Andy ; Scheiman, Mitchell ; Zinzer, Kathleen ; Pollack, Karen ; Lancaster, Timothy ; Elliott, Theresa ; Bernhardt, Mark ; Ferrara, Daniel ; Miles, Jeff ; Wilkins, Scott ; Wilkins, Renee ; Lynch, Jennifer Nicole ; D'Antonio, Dawn ; Lear, Lindsey ; Dang, Sandy ; Sporer, Charles ; Jameson, Mary ; Grossman, Abby ; Torres, Mariel ; Jones, Heather ; Madigan-Carr, Melissa ; Sanogo, Theresa ; Bailey, Jo Ann ; Hardy, Robert ; Mutti, Donald ; Stone, Richard ; Taylor, Carol. / Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial. In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 2014 ; Vol. 55, No. 2. pp. 752-758.
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title = "Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial",
abstract = "Purpose. To investigate monthly and seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Methods. An ethnically diverse cohort of 469 myopic 6- to <12 year-old children was randomized to single vision or progressive addition lenses and followed for 3 years with 98.5{\%} retention. Progression of myopia was measured semiannually by noncycloplegic autorefraction (Nidek ARK 700A) and annually by cycloplegic autorefraction, with the former measurements used in these analyses. The semiannual progression rate was calculated as (change in spherical equivalent refraction between two consecutive semiannual visits/number of days between the two visits) times 182.5. Months were categorized as the midpoint between two visit dates. Seasons were classified as winter (October through March) or summer (April through September). The seasonal difference was tested using a linear mixed model adjusting for demographic variables (age, sex, ethnicity), baseline refraction, and treatment group. Results. Data from 358 children (mean [±SD] age = 9.84 ± 1.27 years; mean myopia = -2.54 ± 0.84 diopters [D]) met the criteria for these analyses. Myopia progression varied systematically by month; it was slower in April through September than in the other months. Mean progression in winter was -0.35 ± 0.34 D and in summer was -0.14 ± 0.32 D, a statistically significant difference (0.21 D, P < 0.0001). The same seasonal pattern was found by age, sex, ethnicity (except in the small sample of Asians), lens type, and clinical center. Conclusions. The slower progression of myopia found in summer is likely related to children's spending more time outdoors and fewer hours in school. The data have clinical implications regarding the time of year and the frequency with which myopic children have eye examinations and the need for precise timing of visits in clinical trials testing new myopia treatments.",
keywords = "Children's vision, Myopia, Refractive error",
author = "Jane Gwiazda and Li Deng and Ruth Manny and Norton, {Thomas T.} and Thomas Norton and Kenneth Grice and Christine Fortunato and Cara Weber and Alexandra Beale and David Kern and Sally Bittinger and Debanjali Ghosh and Rosanna Pacella and Leslie Hyman and Leske, {M. Cristina} and Mohamed Hussein and Dong, {Li Ming} and Melissa Fazzari and Wei Hou and Elinor Schoenfeld and Lynette Dias and Rachel Harrison and Wen Zhu and Qinghua Zhang and Ying Wang and Ahmed Yassin and Elissa Schnall and Cristi Rau and Jennifer Thomas and Marcela Wasserman and Chen, {Yi ju} and Sakeena Ahmed and Leanne Merill and Lauretta Passanant and Maria Rodriguez and Allison Schmertz and Ann Park and Phyllis Neuschwender and Geeta Veeraraghavan and Angela Santomarco and Laura Sisti and Lydia Seib and Donald Everett and Wendy Marsh-Tootle and Katherine Weise and Marcela Frazier and Catherine Baldwin and Carey Dillard and Kristine Becker and James Raley and Angela Rawden and Nicholas Harris and Trana Mars and Robert Rutstein and Daniel Kurtz and Erik Weissberg and Bruce Moore and Elise Harb and Robert Owens and Sheila Martin and Joanne Bolden and Justin Smith and David Kern and Sally Bittinger and Debanjali Ghosh and Benny Jaramillo and Stacy Hamlett and Laura Vasilakos and Sarah Gladstone and Chris Owens and Patricia Kowalski and Jennifer Hazelwood and Ruth Manny and Connie Crossnoe and Karen Fern and Heather Anderson and Sheila Deatherage and Charles Dudonis and Sally Henry and Jennifer McLeod and Mamie Batres and Julio Quiralte and Giselle Garza and Gabynely Solis and Joan Do and Andy Ketcham and Mitchell Scheiman and Kathleen Zinzer and Karen Pollack and Timothy Lancaster and Theresa Elliott and Mark Bernhardt and Daniel Ferrara and Jeff Miles and Scott Wilkins and Renee Wilkins and Lynch, {Jennifer Nicole} and Dawn D'Antonio and Lindsey Lear and Sandy Dang and Charles Sporer and Mary Jameson and Abby Grossman and Mariel Torres and Heather Jones and Melissa Madigan-Carr and Theresa Sanogo and Bailey, {Jo Ann} and Robert Hardy and Donald Mutti and Richard Stone and Carol Taylor",
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doi = "10.1167/iovs.13-13029",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "55",
pages = "752--758",
journal = "Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the correction of myopia evaluation trial

AU - Gwiazda, Jane

AU - Deng, Li

AU - Manny, Ruth

AU - Norton, Thomas T.

AU - Norton, Thomas

AU - Grice, Kenneth

AU - Fortunato, Christine

AU - Weber, Cara

AU - Beale, Alexandra

AU - Kern, David

AU - Bittinger, Sally

AU - Ghosh, Debanjali

AU - Pacella, Rosanna

AU - Hyman, Leslie

AU - Leske, M. Cristina

AU - Hussein, Mohamed

AU - Dong, Li Ming

AU - Fazzari, Melissa

AU - Hou, Wei

AU - Schoenfeld, Elinor

AU - Dias, Lynette

AU - Harrison, Rachel

AU - Zhu, Wen

AU - Zhang, Qinghua

AU - Wang, Ying

AU - Yassin, Ahmed

AU - Schnall, Elissa

AU - Rau, Cristi

AU - Thomas, Jennifer

AU - Wasserman, Marcela

AU - Chen, Yi ju

AU - Ahmed, Sakeena

AU - Merill, Leanne

AU - Passanant, Lauretta

AU - Rodriguez, Maria

AU - Schmertz, Allison

AU - Park, Ann

AU - Neuschwender, Phyllis

AU - Veeraraghavan, Geeta

AU - Santomarco, Angela

AU - Sisti, Laura

AU - Seib, Lydia

AU - Everett, Donald

AU - Marsh-Tootle, Wendy

AU - Weise, Katherine

AU - Frazier, Marcela

AU - Baldwin, Catherine

AU - Dillard, Carey

AU - Becker, Kristine

AU - Raley, James

AU - Rawden, Angela

AU - Harris, Nicholas

AU - Mars, Trana

AU - Rutstein, Robert

AU - Kurtz, Daniel

AU - Weissberg, Erik

AU - Moore, Bruce

AU - Harb, Elise

AU - Owens, Robert

AU - Martin, Sheila

AU - Bolden, Joanne

AU - Smith, Justin

AU - Kern, David

AU - Bittinger, Sally

AU - Ghosh, Debanjali

AU - Jaramillo, Benny

AU - Hamlett, Stacy

AU - Vasilakos, Laura

AU - Gladstone, Sarah

AU - Owens, Chris

AU - Kowalski, Patricia

AU - Hazelwood, Jennifer

AU - Manny, Ruth

AU - Crossnoe, Connie

AU - Fern, Karen

AU - Anderson, Heather

AU - Deatherage, Sheila

AU - Dudonis, Charles

AU - Henry, Sally

AU - McLeod, Jennifer

AU - Batres, Mamie

AU - Quiralte, Julio

AU - Garza, Giselle

AU - Solis, Gabynely

AU - Do, Joan

AU - Ketcham, Andy

AU - Scheiman, Mitchell

AU - Zinzer, Kathleen

AU - Pollack, Karen

AU - Lancaster, Timothy

AU - Elliott, Theresa

AU - Bernhardt, Mark

AU - Ferrara, Daniel

AU - Miles, Jeff

AU - Wilkins, Scott

AU - Wilkins, Renee

AU - Lynch, Jennifer Nicole

AU - D'Antonio, Dawn

AU - Lear, Lindsey

AU - Dang, Sandy

AU - Sporer, Charles

AU - Jameson, Mary

AU - Grossman, Abby

AU - Torres, Mariel

AU - Jones, Heather

AU - Madigan-Carr, Melissa

AU - Sanogo, Theresa

AU - Bailey, Jo Ann

AU - Hardy, Robert

AU - Mutti, Donald

AU - Stone, Richard

AU - Taylor, Carol

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Purpose. To investigate monthly and seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Methods. An ethnically diverse cohort of 469 myopic 6- to <12 year-old children was randomized to single vision or progressive addition lenses and followed for 3 years with 98.5% retention. Progression of myopia was measured semiannually by noncycloplegic autorefraction (Nidek ARK 700A) and annually by cycloplegic autorefraction, with the former measurements used in these analyses. The semiannual progression rate was calculated as (change in spherical equivalent refraction between two consecutive semiannual visits/number of days between the two visits) times 182.5. Months were categorized as the midpoint between two visit dates. Seasons were classified as winter (October through March) or summer (April through September). The seasonal difference was tested using a linear mixed model adjusting for demographic variables (age, sex, ethnicity), baseline refraction, and treatment group. Results. Data from 358 children (mean [±SD] age = 9.84 ± 1.27 years; mean myopia = -2.54 ± 0.84 diopters [D]) met the criteria for these analyses. Myopia progression varied systematically by month; it was slower in April through September than in the other months. Mean progression in winter was -0.35 ± 0.34 D and in summer was -0.14 ± 0.32 D, a statistically significant difference (0.21 D, P < 0.0001). The same seasonal pattern was found by age, sex, ethnicity (except in the small sample of Asians), lens type, and clinical center. Conclusions. The slower progression of myopia found in summer is likely related to children's spending more time outdoors and fewer hours in school. The data have clinical implications regarding the time of year and the frequency with which myopic children have eye examinations and the need for precise timing of visits in clinical trials testing new myopia treatments.

AB - Purpose. To investigate monthly and seasonal variations in the progression of myopia in children enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET). Methods. An ethnically diverse cohort of 469 myopic 6- to <12 year-old children was randomized to single vision or progressive addition lenses and followed for 3 years with 98.5% retention. Progression of myopia was measured semiannually by noncycloplegic autorefraction (Nidek ARK 700A) and annually by cycloplegic autorefraction, with the former measurements used in these analyses. The semiannual progression rate was calculated as (change in spherical equivalent refraction between two consecutive semiannual visits/number of days between the two visits) times 182.5. Months were categorized as the midpoint between two visit dates. Seasons were classified as winter (October through March) or summer (April through September). The seasonal difference was tested using a linear mixed model adjusting for demographic variables (age, sex, ethnicity), baseline refraction, and treatment group. Results. Data from 358 children (mean [±SD] age = 9.84 ± 1.27 years; mean myopia = -2.54 ± 0.84 diopters [D]) met the criteria for these analyses. Myopia progression varied systematically by month; it was slower in April through September than in the other months. Mean progression in winter was -0.35 ± 0.34 D and in summer was -0.14 ± 0.32 D, a statistically significant difference (0.21 D, P < 0.0001). The same seasonal pattern was found by age, sex, ethnicity (except in the small sample of Asians), lens type, and clinical center. Conclusions. The slower progression of myopia found in summer is likely related to children's spending more time outdoors and fewer hours in school. The data have clinical implications regarding the time of year and the frequency with which myopic children have eye examinations and the need for precise timing of visits in clinical trials testing new myopia treatments.

KW - Children's vision

KW - Myopia

KW - Refractive error

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U2 - 10.1167/iovs.13-13029

DO - 10.1167/iovs.13-13029

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JO - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

JF - Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science

SN - 0146-0404

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