We developed genetically encoded voltage indicators using a transmembrane voltage-sensing domain and bright near-infrared fluorescent proteins derived from bacterial phytochromes. These new voltage indicators are excited by 640 nm light and emission is measured at 670 nm, allowing imaging in the near-infrared tissue transparency window. The spectral properties of our new indicators permit seamless voltage imaging with simultaneous blue-green light optogenetic actuator activation as well as simultaneous voltage-calcium imaging when paired with green calcium indicators. Iterative optimizations led to a fluorescent probe, here termed nirButterfly, which reliably reports neuronal activities including subthreshold membrane potential depolarization and hyperpolarization as well as spontaneous spiking or electrically- and optogenetically evoked action potentials. This enables largely improved all-optical causal interrogations of physiology.
- all-optical electrophysiology
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cell Biology