Scaling of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients is related to filling time duration

Zoran B. Popović, Kathryn E. Richards, Neil L. Greenberg, Aleksandr Rovner, Jeannie Drinko, Yuanna Cheng, Marc S. Penn, Kiyotaka Fukamachi, Niladri Mal, Benjamin D. Levine, Mario J. Garcia, James D. Thomas

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18 Scopus citations

Abstract

In early diastole, pressure is lower in the apex than in the base of the left ventricle (LV). This early intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) facilitates LV filling. We assessed how LV diastolic IVPD and intraventricular pressure gradient (IVPG), defined as IVPD divided by length, scale to the heart size and other physiological variables. We studied 10 mice, 10 rats, 5 rabbits, 12 dogs, and 21 humans by echocardiography. Color Doppler M-mode data were postprocessed to reconstruct IVPD and IVPG. Normalized LV filling time was calculated by dividing filling time by RR interval. The relationship between IVPD, IVPG, normalized LV filling time, and LV end-diastolic volume (or mass) as fit to the general scaling equation Y = kMβ, where M is LV heart size parameter, Y is a dependent variable, k is a constant, and β is the power of the scaling exponent. LV mass varied from 0.049 to 194 g, whereas end-diastolic volume varied from 0.011 to 149 ml. The β values relating normalized LV filling time with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were 0.091 (SD 0.011) and 0.083 (SD 0.009), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). The β values relating IVPD with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were similarly significant at 0.271 (SD 0.039) and 0.243 (SD 0.0361), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). Finally, β values relating IVPG with LV mass and end-diastolic volume were -0.118 (SD 0.013) and -0.104 (SD 0.011), respectively (P < 0.0001 vs. 0 for both). As a result, there was an inverse relationship between IVPG and normalized LV filling time (r = -0.65, P < 0.001). We conclude that IVPD decrease, while IVPG increase with decreasing animal size. High IVPG in small mammals may be an adaptive mechanism to short filling times.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H762-H769
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume291
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2006

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Keywords

  • Comparative physiology
  • Diastolic function
  • Hemodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Popović, Z. B., Richards, K. E., Greenberg, N. L., Rovner, A., Drinko, J., Cheng, Y., Penn, M. S., Fukamachi, K., Mal, N., Levine, B. D., Garcia, M. J., & Thomas, J. D. (2006). Scaling of diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients is related to filling time duration. American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 291(2), H762-H769. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00081.2006