Background: Allograft biopsies with lesions of Antibody-Mediated Rejection (ABMR) with Microvascular Inflammation (MVI) have shown heterogeneous etiologies and outcomes. Methods: To examine factors associated with outcomes in biopsies that meet histologic ABMR criteria, we retrospectively evaluated for-cause biopsies at our center between 2011 and 2017. We included biopsies that met the diagnosis of ABMR by histology, along with simultaneous evaluation for anti-Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) donor-specific antibodies (DSA). We evaluated death-censored graft loss (DCGL) and used a principal component analysis (PCA) approach to identify key predictors of outcomes. Results: Out of the histologic ABMR cohort (n = 118), 70 were DSA-positive ABMR, while 48 had no DSA. DSA(+)ABMR were younger and more often female recipients. DSA(+)ABMR occurred significantly later post-transplant than DSA(-)ABMR suggesting time-dependence. DSA(+)ABMR had higher inflammatory scores (i,t), chronicity scores (ci, ct) and tended to have higher MVI scores. Immunodominance of DQ-DSA in DSA(+)ABMR was associated with higher i+t scores. Clinical/histologic factors significantly associated with DCGL after biopsy were inputted into the PCA. Principal component-1 (PC-1), which contributed 34.8% of the variance, significantly correlated with time from transplantation to biopsy, ci/ct scores and DCGL. In the PCA analyses, i, t scores, DQ-DSA, and creatinine at biopsy retained significant correlations with GL-associated PCs. Conclusions: Time from transplantation to biopsy plays a major role in the prognosis of biopsies with histologic ABMR and MVI, likely due to ongoing chronic allograft injury over time.
- classification systems: Banff classification
- rejection: antibody-mediated (ABMR)
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