Increased hepatic glucose production (HGP) is the major cause of fasting hyperglycemia in all forms of diabetes. Glucokinase (GK) and glucose-6- phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) are the proximal and the distal enzymatic steps, respectively, in the regulation of HGP. We examined the impact of changes in GK and Glc-6-Pase activities on in vivo hepatic glucose fluxes in diabetic (D) and control (C) rats. In particular, the acute regulation by insulin was investigated using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in conscious rats. In experimental diabetes (6 weeks): (a) GK mRNA was decreased by ≃40%; (b) the V(max) of GK was markedly decreased (≃4 versus 9 μmol/g wet weight/min) and that of Glc-6-Pase was 2-fold increased (≃30 versus 15 μmol/g wet weight/min, D versus C), while (c) the K(m) of GK (≃10 mM) and Glc-6-Pase (≃1.5 mM) were unchanged. HGP was increased by 65% in diabetes and correlated highly with the ratio of Glc-6-Pase/GK (r = 0.81, p < 0.01). Following acute hyperinsulinemia (2 h): (a) GK mRNA increased by ~2-fold in both C and D; (b) GK V(max) did not change in C, but doubled to near-normal in D; (c) Glc-6-Pase V(max) decreased by 23% in C and by 34% in D; (d) the K(m) of GK decreased by ≃40% (p < 0.01) in C. Acute hyperinsulinemia almost completely inhibited HGP in both C and D, and no correlation was demonstrated between HGP and the ratio of Glc-6-Pase/GK in these groups. Our data suggest that GK and Glc-6-Pase are important determinants of fasting HGP in diabetes. However, acute changes in Glc-6-Pase and GK activities can account for only a small portion of the in vivo inhibition of hepatic glucose flux by insulin, suggesting additional mechanisms for the short-term regulation of HGP.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology