The force frequency relationship (FFR), first described by Bowditch 139 years ago as the observation that myocardial contractility increases proportionally with increasing heart rate, is an important mediator of enhanced cardiac output during exercise. Individuals with heart failure have defective positive FFR that impairs their cardiac function in response to stress, and the degree of positive FFR deficiency correlates with heart failure progression. We have identified a mechanism for FFR involving heart rate dependent phosphorylation of the major cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR2), at Ser2814, by calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase-δ (CaMKIIδ). Mice engineered with an RyR2-S2814A mutation have RyR2 channels that cannot be phosphorylated by CaMKIIδ, and exhibit a blunted positive FFR. Ex vivo hearts from RyR2-S2814A mice also have blunted positive FFR, and cardiomyocytes isolated from the RyR2-S2814A mice exhibit impaired rate-dependent enhancement of cytosolic calcium levels and fractional shortening. The cardiac RyR2 macromolecular complexes isolated from murine and human failing hearts have reduced CaMKIIδ levels. These data indicate that CaMKIIδ phosphorylation of RyR2 plays an important role in mediating positive FFR in the heart, and that defective regulation of RyR2 by CaMKIIδ-mediated phosphorylation is associated with the loss of positive FFR in failing hearts.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2010|
- Calcium channels
- Excitation-contraction coupling
ASJC Scopus subject areas