Surgery has evolved from the 19th century through the introduction of ether anesthesia, principles of antisepsis, and the formalization of surgical training.1 In the late 20th century, the introduction of laparoscopy and robotics has continued to evolve the practice of surgery. The computer revolution has affected all of our lives. Computers affect the surgeon's interaction with the patient and the mechanics of tissue manipulation. 2 At present time, a multitude of devices are available to assist, to interact, and to perform tasks in concert with the surgeon to complete the operation. The computer revolution compliments, and has added to, the development of robotic technology. This chapter will review the development of robotic surgical systems and instrumentation, the benefits they offer over conventional laparoscopic surgery, and the future of robotic technology.
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