Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011

Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors contributing to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection. METHODS: A case-control investigation was conducted. Case patients were soft contact lens wearers with laboratory-confirmed AK. Control were soft contact lens wearers ≥12 years of age, with no history of AK. Case patients were recruited from 14 ophthalmology referral centers and a clinical laboratory. Control were matched on state of residence and type of primary eye care provider (ophthalmologist or optometrist). Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted. Matched odds ratios (mORs) were calculated. RESULTS: Participants included 88 case patients and 151 matched control. Case patients were more likely to be aged <25 years (unadjusted mOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.5) or aged >53 years (mOR 2.5, 1.1-5.7), and more likely to be men (mOR 2.6, 1.4-4.8). Unadjusted analyses identified multiple risk factors: rinsing (mOR 6.3, 1.3-29.9) and storing lenses in tap water (mOR 3.9, 1.2-12.3), topping off solution in the lens case (mOR 4.0, 2.0-8.0), having worn lenses ≤5 years (mOR 2.4, 1.3-4.4), rinsing the case with tap water before storing lenses (mOR 2.1, 1.1-4.1), and using hydrogen peroxide (mOR 3.6, 1.1-11.7) versus multipurpose solution. Significant risk factors in multivariable modeling included age >53 years, male sex, topping off, and using saline solution. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous modifiable risk factors for AK were identified, mostly involving hygiene practices. To reduce the risk of AK, lens wearers should observe recommended lens care practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S173-S178
JournalEye & contact lens
Volume44
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018

Fingerprint

Acanthamoeba Keratitis
Lenses
Case-Control Studies
Hydrophilic Contact Lens
Water
Ophthalmology
Hygiene
Sodium Chloride
Hydrogen Peroxide
Primary Health Care
Referral and Consultation
Logistic Models
Odds Ratio
Regression Analysis
Infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

Cite this

Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011. / Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team.

In: Eye & contact lens, Vol. 44, 01.09.2018, p. S173-S178.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team. / Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011. In: Eye & contact lens. 2018 ; Vol. 44. pp. S173-S178.
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title = "Risk Factors for Acanthamoeba Keratitis-A Multistate Case-Control Study, 2008-2011",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors contributing to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection. METHODS: A case-control investigation was conducted. Case patients were soft contact lens wearers with laboratory-confirmed AK. Control were soft contact lens wearers ≥12 years of age, with no history of AK. Case patients were recruited from 14 ophthalmology referral centers and a clinical laboratory. Control were matched on state of residence and type of primary eye care provider (ophthalmologist or optometrist). Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted. Matched odds ratios (mORs) were calculated. RESULTS: Participants included 88 case patients and 151 matched control. Case patients were more likely to be aged <25 years (unadjusted mOR 2.7, 95{\%} confidence interval 1.3-5.5) or aged >53 years (mOR 2.5, 1.1-5.7), and more likely to be men (mOR 2.6, 1.4-4.8). Unadjusted analyses identified multiple risk factors: rinsing (mOR 6.3, 1.3-29.9) and storing lenses in tap water (mOR 3.9, 1.2-12.3), topping off solution in the lens case (mOR 4.0, 2.0-8.0), having worn lenses ≤5 years (mOR 2.4, 1.3-4.4), rinsing the case with tap water before storing lenses (mOR 2.1, 1.1-4.1), and using hydrogen peroxide (mOR 3.6, 1.1-11.7) versus multipurpose solution. Significant risk factors in multivariable modeling included age >53 years, male sex, topping off, and using saline solution. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous modifiable risk factors for AK were identified, mostly involving hygiene practices. To reduce the risk of AK, lens wearers should observe recommended lens care practices.",
author = "{Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team} and Brown, {Allison C.} and Jonathan Ross and Jones, {Daniel B.} and Collier, {Sarah A.} and Ayers, {Tracy L.} and Hoekstra, {Robert M.} and Bryon Backensen and Roy, {Sharon L.} and Beach, {Michael J.} and Yoder, {Jonathan S.}",
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AU - Acanthamoeba Keratitis Investigation Team

AU - Brown, Allison C.

AU - Ross, Jonathan

AU - Jones, Daniel B.

AU - Collier, Sarah A.

AU - Ayers, Tracy L.

AU - Hoekstra, Robert M.

AU - Backensen, Bryon

AU - Roy, Sharon L.

AU - Beach, Michael J.

AU - Yoder, Jonathan S.

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors contributing to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection. METHODS: A case-control investigation was conducted. Case patients were soft contact lens wearers with laboratory-confirmed AK. Control were soft contact lens wearers ≥12 years of age, with no history of AK. Case patients were recruited from 14 ophthalmology referral centers and a clinical laboratory. Control were matched on state of residence and type of primary eye care provider (ophthalmologist or optometrist). Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted. Matched odds ratios (mORs) were calculated. RESULTS: Participants included 88 case patients and 151 matched control. Case patients were more likely to be aged <25 years (unadjusted mOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.5) or aged >53 years (mOR 2.5, 1.1-5.7), and more likely to be men (mOR 2.6, 1.4-4.8). Unadjusted analyses identified multiple risk factors: rinsing (mOR 6.3, 1.3-29.9) and storing lenses in tap water (mOR 3.9, 1.2-12.3), topping off solution in the lens case (mOR 4.0, 2.0-8.0), having worn lenses ≤5 years (mOR 2.4, 1.3-4.4), rinsing the case with tap water before storing lenses (mOR 2.1, 1.1-4.1), and using hydrogen peroxide (mOR 3.6, 1.1-11.7) versus multipurpose solution. Significant risk factors in multivariable modeling included age >53 years, male sex, topping off, and using saline solution. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous modifiable risk factors for AK were identified, mostly involving hygiene practices. To reduce the risk of AK, lens wearers should observe recommended lens care practices.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiable risk factors contributing to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) infection. METHODS: A case-control investigation was conducted. Case patients were soft contact lens wearers with laboratory-confirmed AK. Control were soft contact lens wearers ≥12 years of age, with no history of AK. Case patients were recruited from 14 ophthalmology referral centers and a clinical laboratory. Control were matched on state of residence and type of primary eye care provider (ophthalmologist or optometrist). Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted. Matched odds ratios (mORs) were calculated. RESULTS: Participants included 88 case patients and 151 matched control. Case patients were more likely to be aged <25 years (unadjusted mOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.5) or aged >53 years (mOR 2.5, 1.1-5.7), and more likely to be men (mOR 2.6, 1.4-4.8). Unadjusted analyses identified multiple risk factors: rinsing (mOR 6.3, 1.3-29.9) and storing lenses in tap water (mOR 3.9, 1.2-12.3), topping off solution in the lens case (mOR 4.0, 2.0-8.0), having worn lenses ≤5 years (mOR 2.4, 1.3-4.4), rinsing the case with tap water before storing lenses (mOR 2.1, 1.1-4.1), and using hydrogen peroxide (mOR 3.6, 1.1-11.7) versus multipurpose solution. Significant risk factors in multivariable modeling included age >53 years, male sex, topping off, and using saline solution. CONCLUSIONS: Numerous modifiable risk factors for AK were identified, mostly involving hygiene practices. To reduce the risk of AK, lens wearers should observe recommended lens care practices.

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