Environmental and occupational exposure to chemical and biological agents can interfere with neurons and glial cells from the central and peripheral nervous systems and generate a condition called neurotoxicity. Early diagnostics is critical to improve outcomes and to avoid long-lasting damage that can incapacitate the affected subjects. To that end, clinical biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility have been applied using different biological matrices. Biomarkers must be specific, sensitive, and less invasive as possible; however, the literature demonstrates that neurotoxicity biomarkers are still on the path of validation. This chapter focuses on biomarkers that have been validated in humans and are clinically used and those that are being investigated and seem promising. We will address different types of biomarkers for a variety of toxicants and then focus on three major classes: metals, pesticides, and organic solvents. Our literature compilation indicates that just a few biomarkers follow the desired characteristics and that the development of neurotoxicity biomarkers must be a shared goal from scientists from different disciplines in order to advance in this field.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi-System Health Impacts from Exposure|
|Number of pages||17|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2021|
- Organic solvents
ASJC Scopus subject areas