Replicative stress and alterations in cell cycle checkpoint controls following acetaminophen hepatotoxicity restrict liver regeneration

Preeti Viswanathan, Yogeshwar Sharma, Priya Gupta, Sanjeev Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of hepatic failure with impairments in liver regeneration producing significant mortality. Multiple intracellular events, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, etc., signify acetaminophen toxicity, although how these may alter cell cycle controls has been unknown and was studied for its significance in liver regeneration. Materials and methods: Assays were performed in HuH-7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, primary human hepatocytes and tissue samples from people with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell proliferation events were investigated by mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry, fluorescence staining, comet assays and spotted arrays for protein expression after acetaminophen exposures. Results: In experimental groups with acetaminophen toxicity, impaired mitochondrial viability and substantial DNA damage were observed with rapid loss of cells in S and G2/M and cell cycle restrictions or even exit in the remainder. This resulted from altered expression of the DNA damage regulator, ATM and downstream transducers, which imposed G1/S checkpoint arrest, delayed entry into S and restricted G2 transit. Tissues from people with acute liver failure confirmed hepatic DNA damage and cell cycle-related lesions, including restrictions of hepatocytes in aneuploid states. Remarkably, treatment of cells with a cytoprotective cytokine reversed acetaminophen-induced restrictions to restore cycling. Conclusions: Cell cycle lesions following mitochondrial and DNA damage led to failure of hepatic regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity but their reversibility offers molecular targets for treating acute liver failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCell Proliferation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

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Liver Regeneration
Acetaminophen
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
DNA Damage
Acute Liver Failure
Cell Cycle
Liver Failure
Hepatocytes
Oxidative Stress
Protein Array Analysis
Comet Assay
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
Aneuploidy
Transducers
Mitochondrial DNA
Regeneration
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Flow Cytometry
Fluorescence
Cell Proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Replicative stress and alterations in cell cycle checkpoint controls following acetaminophen hepatotoxicity restrict liver regeneration",
abstract = "Objectives: Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of hepatic failure with impairments in liver regeneration producing significant mortality. Multiple intracellular events, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, etc., signify acetaminophen toxicity, although how these may alter cell cycle controls has been unknown and was studied for its significance in liver regeneration. Materials and methods: Assays were performed in HuH-7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, primary human hepatocytes and tissue samples from people with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell proliferation events were investigated by mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry, fluorescence staining, comet assays and spotted arrays for protein expression after acetaminophen exposures. Results: In experimental groups with acetaminophen toxicity, impaired mitochondrial viability and substantial DNA damage were observed with rapid loss of cells in S and G2/M and cell cycle restrictions or even exit in the remainder. This resulted from altered expression of the DNA damage regulator, ATM and downstream transducers, which imposed G1/S checkpoint arrest, delayed entry into S and restricted G2 transit. Tissues from people with acute liver failure confirmed hepatic DNA damage and cell cycle-related lesions, including restrictions of hepatocytes in aneuploid states. Remarkably, treatment of cells with a cytoprotective cytokine reversed acetaminophen-induced restrictions to restore cycling. Conclusions: Cell cycle lesions following mitochondrial and DNA damage led to failure of hepatic regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity but their reversibility offers molecular targets for treating acute liver failure.",
author = "Preeti Viswanathan and Yogeshwar Sharma and Priya Gupta and Sanjeev Gupta",
year = "2018",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Replicative stress and alterations in cell cycle checkpoint controls following acetaminophen hepatotoxicity restrict liver regeneration

AU - Viswanathan, Preeti

AU - Sharma, Yogeshwar

AU - Gupta, Priya

AU - Gupta, Sanjeev

PY - 2018/1/1

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N2 - Objectives: Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of hepatic failure with impairments in liver regeneration producing significant mortality. Multiple intracellular events, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, etc., signify acetaminophen toxicity, although how these may alter cell cycle controls has been unknown and was studied for its significance in liver regeneration. Materials and methods: Assays were performed in HuH-7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, primary human hepatocytes and tissue samples from people with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell proliferation events were investigated by mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry, fluorescence staining, comet assays and spotted arrays for protein expression after acetaminophen exposures. Results: In experimental groups with acetaminophen toxicity, impaired mitochondrial viability and substantial DNA damage were observed with rapid loss of cells in S and G2/M and cell cycle restrictions or even exit in the remainder. This resulted from altered expression of the DNA damage regulator, ATM and downstream transducers, which imposed G1/S checkpoint arrest, delayed entry into S and restricted G2 transit. Tissues from people with acute liver failure confirmed hepatic DNA damage and cell cycle-related lesions, including restrictions of hepatocytes in aneuploid states. Remarkably, treatment of cells with a cytoprotective cytokine reversed acetaminophen-induced restrictions to restore cycling. Conclusions: Cell cycle lesions following mitochondrial and DNA damage led to failure of hepatic regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity but their reversibility offers molecular targets for treating acute liver failure.

AB - Objectives: Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of hepatic failure with impairments in liver regeneration producing significant mortality. Multiple intracellular events, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, etc., signify acetaminophen toxicity, although how these may alter cell cycle controls has been unknown and was studied for its significance in liver regeneration. Materials and methods: Assays were performed in HuH-7 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, primary human hepatocytes and tissue samples from people with acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Cellular oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell proliferation events were investigated by mitochondrial membrane potential assays, flow cytometry, fluorescence staining, comet assays and spotted arrays for protein expression after acetaminophen exposures. Results: In experimental groups with acetaminophen toxicity, impaired mitochondrial viability and substantial DNA damage were observed with rapid loss of cells in S and G2/M and cell cycle restrictions or even exit in the remainder. This resulted from altered expression of the DNA damage regulator, ATM and downstream transducers, which imposed G1/S checkpoint arrest, delayed entry into S and restricted G2 transit. Tissues from people with acute liver failure confirmed hepatic DNA damage and cell cycle-related lesions, including restrictions of hepatocytes in aneuploid states. Remarkably, treatment of cells with a cytoprotective cytokine reversed acetaminophen-induced restrictions to restore cycling. Conclusions: Cell cycle lesions following mitochondrial and DNA damage led to failure of hepatic regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity but their reversibility offers molecular targets for treating acute liver failure.

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