The case of a 36-year-old man with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a renal aspergilloma is reported. Aspergillus infections are uncommon in patients with AIDS. Isolated renal aspergillomas have rarely been reported in the non-AIDS population (14 cases) and have never been reported in a patient with AIDS. The patient we describe was clinically symptomatic and initially treated medically, but he did not respond to intravenous amphotericin and oral itraconazole. He eventually required nephrectomy, however, there was local recurrence of the aspergilloma postoperatively. We comment on some issues in the spectrum of Aspergillus infections in AIDS and review the literature on the manifestations and treatment of renal aspergillomas.
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