Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation

Maryse Bailly, Frank P. Macaluso, Michael Cammer, Amanda Chan, Jeffrey E. Segall, John S. Condeelis

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166 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1,5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 μm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-345
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Cell Biology
Volume145
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2000

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Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex
Actin Cytoskeleton
Epidermal Growth Factor
Carcinoma
Membranes
Actins
Electron Microscopy
Maintenance
Cell Membrane
Breast Neoplasms
Light
Proteins

Keywords

  • Actin
  • Arp2/3 complex
  • Chemotaxis
  • Nucleation sites
  • Ultrastructure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation",
abstract = "Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1,5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 μm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.",
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author = "Maryse Bailly and Macaluso, {Frank P.} and Michael Cammer and Amanda Chan and Segall, {Jeffrey E.} and Condeelis, {John S.}",
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T1 - Relationship between Arp2/3 complex and the barbed ends of actin filaments at the leading edge of carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation

AU - Bailly, Maryse

AU - Macaluso, Frank P.

AU - Cammer, Michael

AU - Chan, Amanda

AU - Segall, Jeffrey E.

AU - Condeelis, John S.

PY - 2000/6

Y1 - 2000/6

N2 - Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1,5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 μm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.

AB - Using both light and high resolution electron microscopy, we analyzed the spatial and temporal relationships between the Arp2/3 complex and the nucleation activity that is required for lamellipod extension in mammary carcinoma cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. A rapid two- to fourfold increase in filament barbed end number occurs transiently after stimulation and remains confined almost exclusively to the extreme outer edge of the extending lamellipod (within 100-200 nm of the plasma membrane). This is accompanied by an increase in filament density at the leading edge and a general decrease in filament length, with a specific loss of long filaments. Concomitantly, the Arp2/3 complex is recruited with a 1,5-fold increase throughout the entire cortical filament network extending 1-1.5 μm in depth from the membrane at the leading edge. The recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex at the membrane of the extending lamellipod indicates that Arp2/3 may be involved in initial generation of growing filaments. However, only a small subset of the complex present in the cortical network colocalizes near free barbed ends. This suggests that the 100-200-nm submembraneous compartment at the leading edge of the extending lamellipod constitutes a special biochemical microenvironment that favors the generation and maintenance of free barbed ends, possibly through the locally active Arp2/3 complex, severing or decreasing the on-rate of capping protein. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis suggesting uncapping is the dominant mechanism responsible for the generation of nucleation activity. However, they support the hypothesis of an Arp2/3-mediated capture of actin oligomers that formed close to the membrane by other mechanisms such as severing. They also support pointed-end capping by the Arp2/3 complex, accounting for its wide distribution at the leading edge.

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KW - Chemotaxis

KW - Nucleation sites

KW - Ultrastructure

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