Purpose: The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a surface glycoprotein overexpressed on malignant prostate cells, as well as in the neovasculature of many tumors. Recent efforts to target PSMA for imaging prostate cancer rely on suitably functionalized low-molecular-weight agents. YC-27 is a low-molecular-weight, urea-based agent that enables nearinfrared (NIR) imaging of PSMA in vivo. Experimental Design: We have developed and validated a laparoscopic imaging system (including an optimized light source, LumiNIR) that is capable of imaging small tumor burdens with minimal background fluorescence in real-time laparoscopic extirpative surgery of small prostate tumor xenografts in murine and porcine models. Results: In a mouse model, we demonstrate the feasibility of using real-time NIR laparoscopic imaging to detect and surgically remove PSMA-positive xenografts. We then validate the use of our laparoscopic real-time NIR imaging system in a large animal model. Our novel light source, which is optimized for YC-27, is capable of detecting as little as 12.4 pg/mL of the compound (2.48-pg YC-27 in 200-mL agarose). Finally, in a mouse xenograft model, we demonstrate that the use of real-time NIR imaging can reduce positive surgical margins (PSM). Conclusions: These data indicate that a NIR-emitting fluorophore targeted to PSMA may allow improved surgical treatment of human prostate cancer, reduce the rate of PSMs, and alleviate the need for adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research