Chemokine expression is associated with reperfusion of infarcted myocardium in the setting of tissue necrosis, intense inflammation, and inflammatory cytokine release. The specific synthesis of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 mRNA by cardiac venules in reperfused infarcts corresponded to the region where leukocytes normally localize. MCP-1 could be induced by exogenous tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or by postischemic cardiac lymph containing TNF-α. However, the release of TNF-α during early reperfusion did not explain the venular localization of MCP-1 induction. To better understand the factors mediating MCP-1 induction, we examined the role of ischemia/reperfusion in a model of brief coronary occlusion in which no necrosis or inflammatory response is seen. Adult mongrel dogs were subjected to 15 minutes of coronary occlusion and 5 hours of reperfusion. Ribonuclease protection assay revealed up-regulation of MCP-1 mRNA only in ischemic segments of reperfused canine myocardium. Pretreatment with the reactive oxygen scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine completely inhibited MCP-1 induction. In situ hybridization localized MCP-1 message to small venular endothelium in ischemic areas without myocyte necrosis. Gel shift analysis of nuclear extracts from the ischemic area showed enhanced DNA binding of the transcription factors AP-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, crucial for MCP-1 expression, in ischemic myocardial regions. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated reperfusion-dependent dent nuclear translocation of c-Jun and NF-κB (p65) in small venular endothelium, only in the ischemic regions of the myocardium, that was inhibited by N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine. In vitro, treatment of cultured canine jugular vein endothelial cells with the reactive oxygen intermediate H2O2 induced a concentration-dependent increase in MCP-1 mRNA levels, which was inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a precursor of glutathione, but not pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor of NF-κB and activator of AP-1. In contrast to our studies with infarction, incubation of canine jugular vein endothelial cells with postischemic cardiac lymph did not induce MCP-1 mRNA expression suggesting the absence of cytokine-mediated MCP-1 induction after a sublethal ischemic period. These results suggest that reactive oxygen intermediate generation, after a brief ischemic episode, is capable of inducing MCP-1 expression in venular endothelium through AP-1 and NF-κB. Short periods of ischemia/reperfusion, insufficient to produce a myocardial infarction, induce MCP-1 expression, potentially mediating angiogenesis in the ischemic noninfarcted heart.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine