Rapid analytical method for the determination of pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

R. C. Prados-Rosales, J. L. Luque García, M. D. Luque De Castro

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45 Scopus citations


A rapid analytical method for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction has been developed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency - namely microwave power, irradiation time, volume of extractant and number of cycles - were optimized by a two-level factorial fractional design. After extraction, a liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up step including the use of Florisil macrocolumns were required prior to injection of the extracts into the chromatograph in order to isolate the pesticide residues from the lipid fraction of the original extract. The MS-MS ion preparation mode was selected due to the high sensitivity and selectivity it provides. Seed samples were used collected near a crop subjected to aerial pesticide application. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and endosulfan were found in the seeds although they were not subjected to pesticide application, thus showing the spray-drift contamination. The validation of the proposed approach was carried out by comparison with the ISO 659-1988 reference extraction method obtaining similar, or even better efficiencies by the proposed approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-129
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Apr 18 2003



  • Endosulfan
  • Extraction methods
  • Factorial design
  • Focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction
  • Hexachlorocyclohexanes
  • Organochlorine compounds
  • Pesticides
  • Plant materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

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