Radiation-induced cellular DNA damage repair response enhances viral gene therapy efficacy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma

Prasad S. Adusumilli, Mei Ki Chan, Michael Hezel, Zhenkun Yu, Brendon M. Stiles, Ting Chao Chou, Valerie W. Rusch, Yuman Fong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) treated with radiotherapy (RT) has incomplete responses as a result of radiation-induced tumoral stress response that repairs DNA damage. Such stress response is beneficial for oncolytic viral therapy. We hypothesized that a combination of RT and NV1066, an oncolytic herpes virus, might exert an additive or synergistic effect in the treatment of MPM. Methods: JMN, a MPM cell line, was infected with NV1066 at multiplicities of infection of .05 to .25 in vitro with and without radiation (1 to 5 Gy). Virus replication was determined by plaque assay, cell kill by lactate dehydrogenase assay, and GADD34 (growth arrest and DNA damage repair 34, a DNA damage-repair protein) by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot test. Synergistic cytotoxicity dependence on GADD34 upregulation was confirmed by GADD34 small inhibitory RNA (siRNA). Results: Synergism was demonstrated between RT and NV1066 across a wide range of doses. As a result of such synergism, a dose-reduction for each agent (up to 5500-fold) can be accomplished over a wide range of therapeutic-effect levels without sacrificing tumor cell kill. This effect is correlated with increased GADD34 expression and inhibited by transfection of siRNA directed against GADD34. Conclusions: RT can be combined with oncolytic herpes simplex virus therapy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma to achieve synergistic efficacy while minimizing dosage and toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)258-269
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2007
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Combination therapy
  • Gene therapy
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Viruses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology

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