Objectives: To examine predictors of initiation and adherence, identify racial disparities, and compare the survival benefit of cardiac rehabilitation between a white and a unique predominantly non-white minority in an urban environment. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Setting: The outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York. Patients: Consecutive patients (n= 822) referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation were evaluated. Methods: Baseline characteristics and outcomes were ascertained from medical records. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association among initiation, age, gender, race, reason for referral, and copayment. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate mortality outcomes. Main Outcome Measurements: Racial disparities in rates of initiation, adherence and completion, and survival benefit associated with cardiac rehabilitation. Results: Among 822 patients referred (51.5% non-white minorities, 61.1% male), 59.4% initiated cardiac rehabilitation. Non-white minorities initiated cardiac rehabilitation less often than did white patients (54.4% versus 65.2%, P= .003). After adjustment, white patients were 77.5% more likely to initiate cardiac rehabilitation (odds ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.80). Both white populations and non-white minorities who participated in cardiac rehabilitation had a lower risk of death (P= .0022). Conclusions: In a predominantly minority population, racial disparities exist among cardiac rehabilitation participants. Minorities were less likely to initiate cardiac rehabilitation. Gender, referral patterns, and the presence of copayment did not influence initiation. Cardiac rehabilitation initiation was associated with decreased mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
- Clinical Neurology