Racial differences of heart failure with midrange ejection fraction (hfmref): A large urban centre-based retrospective cohort study in the USA

Dan Leslie Li, Renato Quispe, Chioma Onyekwelu, Robert T. Faillace, Cynthia C. Taub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives We aimed to study the racial differences in clinical presentations, survival outcomes and outcome predictors among patients with heart failure (HF) with midrange ejection fraction (HFmrEF, EF 40%-49%). Design This is a retrospective study. Setting Adults with HF diagnosis at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York between 2008 and 2012, with an inpatient echocardiogram showing left ventricular ejection fraction of 40%-49% were included as HFmrEF population. Participants 1,852 HFmrEF patients are included in the study (56% male, mean age 67 years). There were 493 (26.5%) non-Hispanic whites, 541 (29.2%) non-Hispanic black, 489 (26.4%) Hispanics and 329 (17.8%) other racial populations. Outcome measures Cumulative probabilities of all-cause mortality among different racial groups were estimated and multivariable adjusted Cox proportional regressions were performed to assess predictors of mortality. Results Among the HFmrEF patients, white patients were older and were less likely to be on guideline-directed medications. Blacks had a lower prevalence of prior myocardial infarction comparing to other groups. Hispanics had more chronic diseases and yet better survival comparing to whites and blacks after adjustment for age, sex and comorbidities. Distinct sets of survival predictors were revealed in individual racial groups. Baseline use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) was associated with lower mortality among HFmrEF patients in general (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.99). Conclusions There are significant racial/ethnic differences in clinical phenotypes, survival outcomes and mortality predictors of HFmrEF. Furthermore, the use of MRA predicted a reduced mortality in HFmrEF patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number026479
JournalBMJ open
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019


  • Heart failure
  • Heart failure of mid-range ejection fraction
  • Hfmref
  • Mortality
  • Predictors
  • Race

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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