Quantitative and qualitative antibody responses to immunization with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in HIV-infected patients after initiation of antiretroviral treatment: Results from a randomized clinical trial

Maria C. Rodriguez-Barradas, Jose A. Serpa, Iona Munjal, Daniel Mendoza, Adriana M. Rueda, Mahwish Mushtaq, Liise Anne Pirofski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations


Background. Pneumococcal vaccination is recommended for human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) persons; the best timing for immunization with respect to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unknown. Methods. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in HIV+ with CD4+ T cells/μL (CD4) ≥ 200 randomized to receive the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) or placebo at enrollment, followed by placebo or PPV23, respectively, 9-12 months later (after ≥ 6 months of ART). Capsular polysaccharide-specific immunoglobin (Ig) G and IgM levels to serotypes 1, 3, 4, 6B, and 23F, and opsonophagocytic killing activity (OPA) to serotypes 6B and 23F were evaluated 1 month postvaccination. Results. One hundred seven subjects were enrolled, 72 (67.3%) were evaluable (36/group). Both groups had significant increases in pre- to 1-month postvaccination IgG levels, but negligible to IgM, and significant increases in OPA titers to serotype 6B but not to 23F. There were no significant differences between groups in serotype-specific IgM or IgG levels or OPA titers. For the combined groups, there was a significant correlation between serotype-specific IgG and OPA titers to 23F but not to 6B. There was no correlation between CD4, viral load and IgG responses. Conclusions. In HIV+ with CD4 ≥ 200, delaying PPV23 until ≥ 6 months of ART does not improve responses and may lead to missed opportunities for immunization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1703-1711
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015



  • HIV
  • antibody
  • antiretroviral treatment
  • pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides
  • pneumococcal vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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