Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, PS-341 resulted in concentration- and time-dependent effects on Bcl-2 phosphorylation and cleavage in H460 cells that coincided with the PS-341-induced G2-M phase arrest. The observed Bcl-2 cleavage paralleled the degree of PS-341-induced apoptosis but was detected to a similar extent with comparable concentrations of two other proteasome inhibitors (MG-132 and PSI). Calpain inhibitors, ALLM and ALLN, and the caspase inhibitors, Z-VAD and AC-YVAD did not induce Bcl-2 phosphorylation and cleavage. Exposure to PS-341 resulted in an additional Mr 25,000 cleavage fragment of Bcl-2, whereas only a Mr 23,000 fragment was observed with other anticancer agents. The formation of the Mr 25,000 fragment was not prevented by caspase inhibitors unlike the Mr 23,000 fragment, which suggests mediation by a caspase-independent pathway. Cell fractionation studies revealed that the Bcl-2 cleaved fragments localize within membrane structures and was an early event (at ∼12 h, posttreatment), and before the observed cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), β-catenin, and DNA fragmentation (at ∼36 h posttreatment). The Mr 23,000 Bcl-2 cleavage product was inhibited by the pan-caspase inhibitor and the inhibitors of capase-3, -8, -9; but the PARP cleavage was prevented only by the pan-caspase and caspase-3 inhibitors, which suggests that the Mr 23,000 Bcl-2 cleavage occurred at both the initiation and execution stages of apoptosis. The inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway by PS-341 leads, at an early stage of apoptosis, to Bcl-2 phosphorylation and a unique proteolytic cleavage product, which are associated with G2-M phase arrest and the induction of apoptosis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Molecular cancer therapeutics|
|State||Published - Aug 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research